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We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a prototype that meets the form, fit, and function of a household 1.5 V AA battery, but which can be wirelessly recharged without removal from the host device. The prototype system comprises a low-frequency electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) receiver, a lithium polymer energy storage cell, and a power management circuit (PMC), all contained within a 3D-printed package. The EWPT receiver and overall system are experimentally characterized using a 238 Hz sinusoidal magnetic charging field and either a 1000 µF electrolytic capacitor or a lithium polymer (LiPo) cell as the storage cell. The system demonstrates a minimal operating field as low as 50 µTrms (similar in magnitude to Earth’s magnetic field). At this minimum charging field, the prototype transfers a maximum dc current of 50 µA to the capacitor, corresponding to a power delivery of 118 µW. The power effectiveness of the power management system is approximately 49%; with power effectiveness defined as the ratio between actual output power and the maximum possible power the EWPT receiver can transfer to a pure resistive load at a given field strength.
We report the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a chip-sized electromechanical micro-receiver for low-frequency, near-field wireless power transmission that employs both electrodynamic and piezoelectric transductions to achieve a high power density and high output voltage while maintaining a low profile. The 0.09 cm 3 device comprises a laser-micro-machined titanium suspension, one NdFeB magnet, two PZT-5A piezo-ceramic patches, and a precision-manufactured micro-coil with a thickness of only 1.65 mm. The device generates 520 μW average power (5.5 mW•cm -3 ) at 4 cm distance from a transmitter coil operating at 734.6 Hz and within safe human exposure limits. Compared to a previously reported piezoelectric-only prototype, this device generates ~2.5x higher power and offers 18% increased normalized power density (6.5 mW•cm -3 •mT -2 ) for potential improvement in wirelessly charging wearables and bio-implants.