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Global social media use during natural disasters has been well documented (Murthy et al., 2017). In the U.S., public social media platforms are often a primary venue for those affected by disasters . Some disaster victims believe first responders will see their public posts and that the 9-1-1 telephone system becomes overloaded during crises. Moreover, some feel that the accuracy and utility of information on social media is likely higher than traditional media sources . However, sifting through content during a disaster is often difficult due to the high volume of ‘non-relevant’ content. In addition, text is studied more than images posted on Twitter, leaving a potential gap in understanding disaster experiences. Images posted on social media during disasters have a high level of complexity (Murthy et al., 2016). Our study responds to O’Neal et al.’s (2017) call-to-action that social media images posted during disasters should be studied using machine learning.
Citizens Communicating Health Information: Urging Others in their Community to Seek Help During a FloodWhen wide-scale flooding occurs in a community not accustomed to floods, health concerns emerge. While official organizations tasked with communicating emerging health information exist, the proliferation of social media makes it possible for average citizens to participate in this conversation. This study used a combination of semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation techniques to explore how citizens used private social media sites to share health information. We found two main categories of health concerns: existing medical conditions and water-created. We further identified six themes that describe the common approaches average citizens used to share health information: Narrating a personal experience, presenting it as a Public Service Announcement, downplaying the contribution, bringing a credible source into the conversation, including external links and sources, and using humor. Together, these findings suggest that citizens need health information during a flood disaster, and when they do not have it available from official sources, they use their private social media to tap into a shared community identity and carefully help one another.
Social Media in Citizen-Led Disaster Response: Rescuer Roles, Coordination Challenges, and Untapped PotentialWidespread disasters can overload official agencies’ capacity to provide assistance, and often citizen-led groups emerge to assist with disaster response. As social media platforms have expanded, emergent rescue groups have many ways to harness network and mobile tools to coordinate actions and help fellow citizens. This study used semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation techniques to better understand how wide-scale rescues occurred during the 2017 Hurricane Harvey flooding in the Greater Houston, Texas USA area. We found that citizens used diverse apps and social media-related platforms during these rescues and that they played one of three roles: rescuer, dispatcher, or information compiler. The key social media coordination challenges these rescuers faced were incomplete feedback loops, unclear prioritization, and communication overload. This work-in-progress paper contributes to the field of crisis and disaster response research by sharing the nuances in how citizens use social media to respond to calls for help from flooding victims.