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  1. An increasingly common use case for machine learning models is augmenting the abilities of human decision makers. For classification tasks where neither the human nor model are perfectly accurate, a key step in obtaining high performance is combining their individual predictions in a manner that leverages their relative strengths. In this work, we develop a set of algorithms that combine the probabilistic output of a model with the class-level output of a human. We show theoretically that the accuracy of our combination model is driven not only by the individual human and model accuracies, but also by the model's confidence.more »Empirical results on image classification with CIFAR-10 and a subset of ImageNet demonstrate that such human-model combinations consistently have higher accuracies than the model or human alone, and that the parameters of the combination method can be estimated effectively with as few as ten labeled datapoints.« less
  2. Recent advances in machine learning have led to increased deployment of black-box classifiers across a wide variety of applications. In many such situations there is a critical need to both reliably assess the performance of these pre-trained models and to perform this assessment in a label-efficient manner (given that labels may be scarce and costly to collect). In this paper, we introduce an active Bayesian approach for assessment of classifier performance to satisfy the desiderata of both reliability and label-efficiency. We begin by developing inference strategies to quantify uncertainty for common assessment metrics such as accuracy, misclassification cost, and calibrationmore »error. We then propose a general framework for active Bayesian assessment using inferred uncertainty to guide efficient selection of instances for labeling, enabling better performance assessment with fewer labels. We demonstrate significant gains from our proposed active Bayesian approach via a series of systematic empirical experiments assessing the performance of modern neural classifiers (e.g., ResNet and BERT) on several standard image and text classification datasets.« less
  3. Group fairness is measured via parity of quantitative metrics across different protected demographic groups. In this paper, we investigate the problem of reliably assessing group fairness metrics when labeled examples are few but unlabeled examples are plentiful. We propose a general Bayesian framework that can augment labeled data with unlabeled data to produce more accurate and lower-variance estimates compared to methods based on labeled data alone. Our approach estimates calibrated scores (for unlabeled examples) of each group using a hierarchical latent variable model conditioned on labeled examples. This in turn allows for inference of posterior distributions for an array ofmore »group fairness metrics with a notion of uncertainty. We demonstrate that our approach leads to significant and consistent reductions in estimation error across multiple well-known fairness datasets, sensitive attributes, and predictive models. The results clearly show the benefits of using both unlabeled data and Bayesian inference in assessing whether a prediction model is fair or not.« less
  4. The massive surge in the amount of observational field data demands richer and more meaningful collab- oration between data scientists and geoscientists. This document was written by members of the Working Group on Case Studies of the NSF-funded RCN on Intelli- gent Systems Research To Support Geosciences (IS-GEO, https://is-geo.org/) to describe our vision to build and enhance such collaboration through the use of specially- designed benchmark datasets. Benchmark datasets serve as summary descriptions of problem areas, providing a simple interface between disciplines without requiring extensive background knowledge. Benchmark data intend to address a number of overarching goals. First, they aremore »concrete, identifiable, and public, which results in a natural coordination of research efforts across multiple disciplines and institutions. Second, they provide multi- fold opportunities for objective comparison of various algorithms in terms of computational costs, accuracy, utility and other measurable standards, to address a particular question in geoscience. Third, as materials for education, the benchmark data cultivate future human capital and interest in geoscience problems and data science methods. Finally, a concerted effort to produce and publish benchmarks has the potential to spur the development of new data science methods, while provid- ing deeper insights into many fundamental problems in modern geosciences. That is, similarly to the critical role the genomic and molecular biology data archives serve in facilitating the field of bioinformatics, we expect that the proposed geosciences data repository will serve as “catalysts” for the new discicpline of geoinformatics. We describe specifications of a high quality geoscience bench- mark dataset and discuss some of our first benchmark efforts. We invite the Climate Informatics community to join us in creating additional benchmarks that aim to address important climate science problems.« less