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  1. Abstract The use of transparent test/source masses can benefit future measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant G . Such transparent test mass materials can enable nondestructive, quantitative internal density gradient measurements using optical interferometry and allow in-situ optical metrology methods to be realized for the critical distance measurements often needed in a G apparatus. To confirm the sensitivity of such optical interferometry measurements to internal density gradients it is desirable to conduct a check with a totally independent technique. We present an upper bound on possible internal density gradients in lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals using a Talbot-Lau neutron interferometer on the Cold Neutron Imaging Facility at NIST. We placed an upper bound on a fractional atomic density gradient in two PbWO 4 test crystals of 1 N d N d x < 0.5 × 10 − 6  cm −1 . This value is about two orders of magnitude smaller than required for G measurements. We discuss the implications of this result and of other nondestructive methods for characterization of internal density inhomogeneties which can be applied to test masses in G experiments. 
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  2. Abstract It is highly desirable for future measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant G to use test/source masses that allow nondestructive, quantitative internal density gradient measurements. High density optically transparent materials are ideally suited for this purpose since their density gradient can be measured with laser interferometry, and they allow in-situ optical metrology methods for the critical distance measurements often needed in a G apparatus. We present an upper bound on possible internal density gradients in lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals determined using a laser interferometer. We placed an upper bound on the fractional atomic density gradient in two PbWO 4 test crystals of 1 ρ d ρ d x < 2.1 × 1 0 − 8 cm −1 . This value is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than what is required for G measurements. They are also consistent with but more sensitive than a recently reported measurements of the same samples, using neutron interferometry. These results indicate that PbWO 4 crystals are well suited to be used as test masses in G experiments. Future measurements of internal density gradients of test masses used for measurements of G can now be conducted non-destructively for a wide range of possible test masses. 
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