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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Fatigue short‐cracks in Mg alloys display complex growth behavior due to high plastic anisotropy and crack path dependence on local microstructural features. In this study, the three‐dimensional crystallography of short‐crack paths in Mg alloy WE43 was characterized by mapping near‐field high‐energy X‐ray diffraction microscopy (HEDM) reconstructed grain maps to high‐resolution X‐ray CT reconstructions of the fracture surfaces in the crack initiation and short‐crack growth regions of six ultrasonic fatigue specimens. Crack–grain–boundary intersections were analyzed at 81 locations across the six crack paths. The basal intragranular, non‐basal intragranular, or intergranular character of short‐crack growth following each boundary intersection was correlated to crystallographic and geometric parameters of the trailing and leading grains, three‐dimensional grain boundary plane, and advancing crack front. The results indicate that crack paths are dependent on the combined crystallographic and geometric character of the local microstructure, and crack path prediction can be improved by use of dimensionality reduction on subsets of high‐linear‐correlation microstructural parameters.

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  3. Abstract

    Microstructurally small fatigue‐crack growth in polycrystalline materials is highly three‐dimensional due to sensitivity to local microstructural features (e.g., grains). One requirement for modeling microstructurally sensitive crack propagation is establishing the criteria that govern crack evolution, including crack deflection. Here, a high‐fidelity finite‐element modeling framework is used to assess the performance and validity of various crack‐growth criteria, including slip‐based metrics (e.g., fatigue‐indicator parameters), as potential criteria for predicting three‐dimensional crack paths in polycrystalline materials. The modeling framework represents cracks as geometrically explicit discontinuities and involves voxel‐based remeshing, mesh‐gradation control, and a crystal‐plasticity constitutive model. The predictions are compared to experimental measurements of WE43 magnesium samples subject to fatigue loading, for which three‐dimensional grain structures and fatigue‐crack surfaces were measured post‐mortem using near‐field high‐energy x‐ray diffraction microscopy and x‐ray computed tomography. Findings from this work are expected to improve the predictive capabilities of simulations involving microstructurally small fatigue‐crack growth in polycrystalline materials.

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  4. Abstract

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) presents advantages such as increased complexity for a lower part cost and part consolidation compared to traditional manufacturing. The multiscale, multiphase AM processes have been shown to produce parts with non-homogeneous microstructures, leading to variability in the mechanical properties based on complex process–structure–property (p-s-p) relationships. However, the wide range of processing parameters in additive machines presents a challenge in solely experimentally understanding these relationships and calls for the use of digital twins that allow to survey a larger set of parameters using physics-driven methods. Even though physics-driven methods advance the understanding of the p-s-p relationships, they still face challenges of high computing cost and the need for calibration of input parameters. Therefore, data-driven methods have emerged as a new paradigm in the exploration of the p-s-p relationships in metal AM. Data-driven methods are capable of predicting complex phenomena without the need for traditional calibration but also present drawbacks of lack of interpretability and complicated validation. This review article presents a collection of physics- and data-driven methods and examples of their application for understanding the linkages in the p-s-p relationships (in any of the links) in widely used metal AM techniques. The review also contains a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of each type of model, as well as a vision for the future role of both physics-driven and data-driven models in metal AM.

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