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  1. Abstract

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 14 gas-rich, low-surface-brightness galaxies in the field at distances of 25–36 Mpc, with mean effective radii andg-band central surface brightnesses of 1.9 kpc and 24.2 mag arcsec−2. Nine meet the standard criteria to be considered ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). An inspection of point-like sources brighter than the turnover magnitude of the globular cluster luminosity function and within twice the half-light radii of each galaxy reveals that, unlike those in denser environments, gas-rich, field UDGs host very few old globular clusters (GCs). Most of the targets (nine) have zero candidate GCs, with the remainder having one or two candidates each. These findings are broadly consistent with expectations for normal dwarf galaxies of similar stellar mass. This rules out gas-rich, field UDGs as potential progenitors of the GC-rich UDGs that are typically found in galaxy clusters. However, some in galaxy groups may be directly accreted from the field. In line with other recent results, this strongly suggests that there must be at least two distinct formation pathways for UDGs, and that this subpopulation is simply an extreme low surface brightness extension of the underlying dwarf galaxy population. The root cause of their diffuse stellar distributionsmore »remains unclear, but the formation mechanism appears to only impact the distribution of stars (and potentially dark matter), without strongly impacting the distribution of neutral gas, the overall stellar mass, or the number of GCs.

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    We present neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) observations using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope along the lines of sight to 49 confirmed or possible dwarf satellite galaxies around eight Local Volume systems (M104, M51, NGC 1023, NGC 1156, NGC 2903, NGC 4258, NGC 4565, and NGC 4631). We detect the H i reservoirs of two candidates (dw0934+2204 and dw1238−1122) and find them to be background sources relative to their nearest foreground host systems. The remaining 47 satellite candidates are not detected in H i, and we place stringent 5σ upper limits on their H i mass. We note that some (15/47) of our non-detections stem from satellites being occluded by their putative host’s H i emission. In addition to these new observations, we compile literature estimates on the H i mass for an additional 17 satellites. We compare the H i properties of these satellites to those within the Local Group, finding broad agreement between them. Crucially, these observations probe a ‘transition’ region between −10 ≳ MV ≳ −14 where we see a mixture of gas-rich and gas-poor satellites. While there are many gas-poor satellites within this region, some are gas-rich and this suggests that the transition towards predominantly gas-rich satellites occurs at LVmore »∼ 107L⊙, in line with simulations. The observations presented here are a key step toward characterizing the properties of dwarf satellite galaxies around Local Volume systems and future wide-field radio surveys with higher angular resolution (e.g. WALLABY) will vastly improve upon the study of such systems.

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  3. Abstract We present new redshift measurements for 19 candidate ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) from the Systematically Measuring Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (SMUDGes) survey after conducting a long-slit spectroscopic follow-up campaign on 23 candidates with the Large Binocular Telescope. We combine these results with redshift measurements from other sources for 29 SMUDGes and 20 non-SMUDGes candidate UDGs. Together, this sample yields 44 spectroscopically confirmed UDGs ( r e ≥ 1.5 kpc and μ g (0) ≥ 24 mag arcsec −2 within uncertainties) and spans cluster and field environments, with all but one projected on the Coma cluster and environs. We find no statistically significant differences in the structural parameters of cluster and noncluster confirmed UDGs, although there are hints of differences among the axis ratio distributions. Similarly, we find no significant structural differences among those in locally dense or sparse environments. However, we observe a significant difference in color with respect to projected clustercentric radius, confirming trends observed previously in statistical UDG samples. This trend strengthens further when considering whether UDGs reside in either cluster or locally dense environments, suggesting starkly different star formation histories for UDGs residing in high- and low-density environments. Of the 16 large ( r e ≥ 3.5 kpc) UDGsmore »in our sample, only one is a field galaxy that falls near the early-type galaxy red sequence. No other field UDGs found in low-density environments fall near the red sequence. This finding, in combination with our detection of Galaxy Evolution Explorer NUV flux in nearly half of the UDGs in sparse environments, suggests that field UDGs are a population of slowly evolving galaxies.« less
  4. Abstract

    We measure the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio,Rmol, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit molecular gas mass, SFEmol, in 38 nearby galaxies selected from the Virgo Environment Traced in CO (VERTICO) survey. We stack ALMA12CO (J= 2−1) spectra coherently using Hivelocities from the VIVA survey to detect faint CO emission out to galactocentric radiirgal∼ 1.2r25. We determine the scale lengths for the molecular and stellar components, finding a ∼3:5 relation compared to ∼1:1 in field galaxies, indicating that the CO emission is more centrally concentrated than the stars. We computeRmolas a function of different physical quantities. While the spatially resolvedRmolon average decreases with increasing radius, we find that the mean molecular-to-atomic gas ratio within the stellar effective radiusRe,Rmol(r<Re), shows a systematic increase with the level of Hi, truncation and/or asymmetry (HIperturbation). Analysis of the molecular- and the atomic-to-stellar mass ratios withinRe,Rmol(r<Re)andRatom(r<Re), shows that VERTICO galaxies have increasingly lowerRatom(r<Re)for larger levels of HIperturbation (compared to field galaxies matched in stellar mass), but no significant change inRmol(r<Re). We also measure a clear systematic decrease of the SFEmolwithinRe, SFEmol(r<Re),more »with increasingly perturbed Hi. Therefore, compared to field galaxies from the field, VERTICO galaxies are more compact in CO emission in relation to their stellar distribution, but increasingly perturbed atomic gas increases theirRmoland decreases the efficiency with which their molecular gas forms stars.

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  5. Abstract We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of five faint dwarf galaxies associated with the nearby spiral NGC 253 (D ≈ 3.5 Mpc). Three of these are newly discovered dwarf galaxies, while all five were found in the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor, a Magellan+Megacam survey to identify faint dwarfs and other substructures in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. Our HST data reach ≳3 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch for each dwarf, allowing us to derive their distances, structural parameters, and luminosities. All five systems contain mostly old, metal-poor stellar populations (age ∼12 Gyr, [M/H] ≲ −1.5) and have sizes ( r h ∼ 110–3000 pc) and luminosities ( M V ∼ −7 to −12 mag) largely consistent with Local Group dwarfs. The three new NGC 253 satellites are among the faintest systems discovered beyond the Local Group. We also use archival H i data to place limits on the gas content of our discoveries. Deep imaging surveys such as our program around NGC 253 promise to elucidate the faint end of the satellite luminosity function and its scatter across a range of galaxy masses, morphologies,more »and environments in the decade to come.« less
  6. Abstract

    We discuss five blue stellar systems in the direction of the Virgo cluster, analogous to the enigmatic object SECCO 1 (AGC 226067). These objects were identified based on their optical and UV morphology and followed up with Hiobservations with the Very Large Array (and Green Bank Telescope), Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (on the Very Large Telescope) optical spectroscopy, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These new data indicate that one system is a distant group of galaxies. The remaining four are extremely low mass (M*∼ 105M), are dominated by young blue stars, have highly irregular and clumpy morphologies, are only a few kiloparsecs across, yet host an abundance of metal-rich,12+log(O/H)>8.2, Hiiregions. These high metallicities indicate that these stellar systems formed from gas stripped from much more massive galaxies. Despite the young age of their stellar populations, only one system is detected in Hi, while the remaining three have minimal (if any) gas reservoirs. Furthermore, two systems are surprisingly isolated and have no plausible parent galaxy within ∼30′ (∼140 kpc). Although tidal stripping cannot be conclusively excluded as the formation mechanism of these objects, ram pressure stripping more naturally explains their properties, inmore »particular their isolation, owing to the higher velocities, relative to the parent system, that can be achieved. Therefore, we posit that most of these systems formed from ram-pressure-stripped gas removed from new infalling cluster members and survived in the intracluster medium long enough to become separated from their parent galaxies by hundreds of kiloparsecs and that they thus represent a new type of stellar system.

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