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Creators/Authors contains: "Spergel, David N."

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  1. Abstract

    Pulsar distances are notoriously difficult to measure, and play an important role in many fundamental physics experiments, such as pulsar timing arrays. Here, we perform a cross-match between International PTA pulsars (IPTA) and Gaia's Data Release 2 (DR2) and Data Release 3 (DR3). We then combine the IPTA pulsar’s parallax with its binary companion’s parallax, found in Gaia, to improve the distance measurement to the binary. We find seven cross-matched IPTA pulsars in Gaia DR2, and when using Gaia DR3 we find six IPTA pulsar cross-matches but with seven Gaia objects. Moving from Gaia DR2 to Gaia DR3, we find that the Gaia parallaxes for the successfully cross-matched pulsars improved by 53%, and pulsar distances improved by 29%. Finally, we find that binary companions with a <3.0σdetection are unreliable associations, setting a high bar for successful cross-matches.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Complex astrophysical systems often exhibit low-scatter relations between observable properties (e.g., luminosity, velocity dispersion, oscillation period). These scaling relations illuminate the underlying physics, and can provide observational tools for estimating masses and distances. Machine learning can provide a fast and systematic way to search for new scaling relations (or for simple extensions to existing relations) in abstract high-dimensional parameter spaces. We use a machine learning tool called symbolic regression (SR), which models patterns in a dataset in the form of analytic equations. We focus on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich flux−cluster mass relation ( Y SZ − M ), the scatter in which affects inference of cosmological parameters from cluster abundance data. Using SR on the data from the IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulation, we find a new proxy for cluster mass which combines Y SZ and concentration of ionized gas ( c gas ): M ∝ Y conc 3/5 ≡ Y SZ 3/5 (1 − A c gas ). Y conc reduces the scatter in the predicted M by ∼20 − 30% for large clusters ( M ≳ 10 14 h −1 M ⊙ ), as compared to using just Y SZ . We show that the dependence on c gas is linked to cores of clusters exhibiting larger scatter than their outskirts. Finally, we test Y conc on clusters from CAMELS simulations and show that Y conc is robust against variations in cosmology, subgrid physics, and cosmic variance. Our results and methodology can be useful for accurate multiwavelength cluster mass estimation from upcoming CMB and X-ray surveys like ACT, SO, eROSITA and CMB-S4. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 21, 2024
  4. ABSTRACT

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and supernovae can affect measurements of integrated Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) flux of haloes (YSZ) from cosmic microwave background (CMB) surveys, and cause its relation with the halo mass (YSZ–M) to deviate from the self-similar power-law prediction of the virial theorem. We perform a comprehensive study of such deviations using CAMELS, a suite of hydrodynamic simulations with extensive variations in feedback prescriptions. We use a combination of two machine learning tools (random forest and symbolic regression) to search for analogues of the Y–M relation which are more robust to feedback processes for low masses ($M\lesssim 10^{14}\, \mathrm{ h}^{-1} \, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$); we find that simply replacing Y → Y(1 + M*/Mgas) in the relation makes it remarkably self-similar. This could serve as a robust multiwavelength mass proxy for low-mass clusters and galaxy groups. Our methodology can also be generally useful to improve the domain of validity of other astrophysical scaling relations. We also forecast that measurements of the Y–M relation could provide per cent level constraints on certain combinations of feedback parameters and/or rule out a major part of the parameter space of supernova and AGN feedback models used in current state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations. Our results can be useful for using upcoming SZ surveys (e.g. SO, CMB-S4) and galaxy surveys (e.g. DESI and Rubin) to constrain the nature of baryonic feedback. Finally, we find that the alternative relation, Y–M*, provides complementary information on feedback than Y–M.

     
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  5. Abstract Understanding the halo–galaxy connection is fundamental in order to improve our knowledge on the nature and properties of dark matter. In this work, we build a model that infers the mass of a halo given the positions, velocities, stellar masses, and radii of the galaxies it hosts. In order to capture information from correlations among galaxy properties and their phase space, we use Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), which are designed to work with irregular and sparse data. We train our models on galaxies from more than 2000 state-of-the-art simulations from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations project. Our model, which accounts for cosmological and astrophysical uncertainties, is able to constrain the masses of the halos with a ∼0.2 dex accuracy. Furthermore, a GNN trained on a suite of simulations is able to preserve part of its accuracy when tested on simulations run with a different code that utilizes a distinct subgrid physics model, showing the robustness of our method. The PyTorch Geometric implementation of the GNN is publicly available on GitHub ( https://github.com/PabloVD/HaloGraphNet ). 
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  6. Abstract A wealth of cosmological and astrophysical information is expected from many ongoing and upcoming large-scale surveys. It is crucial to prepare for these surveys now and develop tools that can efficiently extract most information. We present HIF low : a fast generative model of the neutral hydrogen (H i ) maps that is conditioned only on cosmology (Ω m and σ 8 ) and designed using a class of normalizing flow models, the masked autoregressive flow. HIF low is trained on the state-of-the-art simulations from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project. HIF low has the ability to generate realistic diverse maps without explicitly incorporating the expected two-dimensional maps structure into the flow as an inductive bias. We find that HIF low is able to reproduce the CAMELS average and standard deviation H i power spectrum within a factor of ≲2, scoring a very high R 2 > 90%. By inverting the flow, HIF low provides a tractable high-dimensional likelihood for efficient parameter inference. We show that the conditional HIF low on cosmology is successfully able to marginalize over astrophysics at the field level, regardless of the stellar and AGN feedback strengths. This new tool represents a first step toward a more powerful parameter inference, maximizing the scientific return of future H i surveys, and opening a new avenue to minimize the loss of complex information due to data compression down to summary statistics. 
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  7. Abstract Traditional large-scale models of reionization usually employ simple deterministic relations between halo mass and luminosity to predict how reionization proceeds. We here examine the impact on modeling reionization of using more detailed models for the ionizing sources as identified within the 100 h −1 Mpc cosmological hydrodynamic simulation S imba , coupled with postprocessed radiative transfer. Comparing with simple (one-to-one) models, the main difference with using S imba sources is the scatter in the relation between dark matter halos and star formation, and hence ionizing emissivity. We find that, at the power spectrum level, the ionization morphology remains mostly unchanged, regardless of the variability in the number of sources or escape fraction. In particular, the power spectrum shape remains unaffected and its amplitude changes slightly by less than 5%–10%, throughout reionization, depending on the scale and neutral fraction. Our results show that simplified models of ionizing sources remain viable to efficiently model the structure of reionization on cosmological scales, although the precise progress of reionization requires accounting for the scatter induced by astrophysical effects. 
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  8. Abstract

    We presentGIGANTES, the most extensive and realistic void catalog suite ever released—containing over 1 billion cosmic voids covering a volume larger than the observable universe, more than 20 TB of data, and created by running the void finderVIDEonQUIJOTE’s halo simulations. TheGIGANTESsuite, spanning thousands of cosmological models, opens up the study of voids, answering compelling questions: Do voids carry unique cosmological information? How is this information correlated with galaxy information? Leveraging the large number of voids in theGIGANTESsuite, our Fisher constraints demonstrate voids contain additional information, critically tightening constraints on cosmological parameters. We use traditional void summary statistics (void size function, void density profile) and the void autocorrelation function, which independently yields an error of 0.13 eV on ∑mνfor a 1h−3Gpc3simulation, without cosmic microwave background priors. Combining halos and voids we forecast an error of 0.09 eV from the same volume, representing a gain of 60% compared to halos alone. Extrapolating to next generation multi-Gpc3surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, Euclid, the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe and Ices Explorer, and the Roman Space Telescope, we expect voids should yield an independent determination of neutrino mass. Crucially,GIGANTESis the first void catalog suite expressly built for intensive machine-learning exploration. We illustrate this by training a neural network to perform likelihood-free inference on the void size function, giving a ∼20% constraint on Ωm. Cosmology problems provide an impetus to develop novel deep-learning techniques. WithGIGANTES, machine learning gains an impressive data set, offering unique problems that will stimulate new techniques.

     
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  9. Abstract Many different studies have shown that a wealth of cosmological information resides on small, nonlinear scales. Unfortunately, there are two challenges to overcome to utilize that information. First, we do not know the optimal estimator that will allow us to retrieve the maximum information. Second, baryonic effects impact that regime significantly and in a poorly understood manner. Ideally, we would like to use an estimator that extracts the maximum cosmological information while marginalizing over baryonic effects. In this work we show that neural networks can achieve that when considering some simple scenarios. We made use of data where the maximum amount of cosmological information is known: power spectra and 2D Gaussian density fields. We also contaminate the data with simplified baryonic effects and train neural networks to predict the value of the cosmological parameters. For this data, we show that neural networks can (1) extract the maximum available cosmological information, (2) marginalize over baryonic effects, and (3) extract cosmological information that is buried in the regime dominated by baryonic physics. We also show that neural networks learn the priors of the data they are trained on, affecting their extrapolation properties. We conclude that a promising strategy to maximize the scientific return of cosmological experiments is to train neural networks on state-of-the-art numerical simulations with different strengths and implementations of baryonic effects. 
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  10. Abstract We use a generic formalism designed to search for relations in high-dimensional spaces to determine if the total mass of a subhalo can be predicted from other internal properties such as velocity dispersion, radius, or star formation rate. We train neural networks using data from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations project and show that the model can predict the total mass of a subhalo with high accuracy: more than 99% of the subhalos have a predicted mass within 0.2 dex of their true value. The networks exhibit surprising extrapolation properties, being able to accurately predict the total mass of any type of subhalo containing any kind of galaxy at any redshift from simulations with different cosmologies, astrophysics models, subgrid physics, volumes, and resolutions, indicating that the network may have found a universal relation. We then use different methods to find equations that approximate the relation found by the networks and derive new analytic expressions that predict the total mass of a subhalo from its radius, velocity dispersion, and maximum circular velocity. We show that in some regimes, the analytic expressions are more accurate than the neural networks. The relation found by the neural network and approximated by the analytic equation bear similarities to the virial theorem. 
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