Motor control requires the coordination of spatiotemporally precise neural oscillations in the beta and gamma range within the primary motor cortex (M1). Recent studies have shown that motor performance can be differentially modulated based on the spectral target of noninvasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), with gamma-frequency tACS improving motor performance. However, the spectral specificity for eliciting such improvements remains unknown. Herein, we derived the peak movement-related gamma frequency in 25 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography and a motor control paradigm. These individualized peak gamma frequencies were then used for personalized sessions of tACS. All participants completed 4 sessions of high-definition (HD)-tACS (sham, low-, peak-, and high-gamma frequency) over M1 for 20 min during the performance of sequential movements of varying complexity (e.g. tapping adjacent fingers or nonadjacent fingers). Our primary findings demonstrated that individualized tACS dosing over M1 leads to enhanced motor performance/learning (i.e. greatest reduction in time to complete motor sequences) compared to nonspecific gamma-tACS in humans, which suggests that personalized neuromodulation may be advantageous to optimize behavioral outcomes.
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Spectral specificity of gamma-frequency transcranial alternating current stimulation over motor cortex during sequential movements
Multielectrode Transcranial Electrical Stimulation of the Left and Right Prefrontal Cortices Differentially Impacts Verbal Working Memory Neural Circuitry
Recent studies have examined the effects of conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on working memory (WM) performance, but this method has relatively low spatial precision and generally involves a reference electrode that complicates interpretation. Herein, we report a repeated-measures crossover study of 25 healthy adults who underwent multielectrode tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right DLPFC, or sham in 3 separate visits. Shortly after each stimulation session, participants performed a verbal WM (VWM) task during magnetoencephalography, and the resulting data were examined in the time–frequency domain and imaged using a beamformer. We found that after left DLPFC stimulation, participants exhibited stronger responses across a network of left-lateralized cortical areas, including the supramarginal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and cuneus, as well as the right hemispheric homologues of these regions. Importantly, these effects were specific to the alpha-band, which has been previously implicated in VWM processing. Although stimulation condition did not significantly affect performance, stepwise regression revealed a relationship between reaction time and response amplitude in the left precuneus and supramarginal gyrus. These findings suggest that multielectrode tDCS targeting the left DLPFC affects the neural dynamics underlying offline VWM processing, including utilization of a more extensivemore »