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Creators/Authors contains: "St-Onge, Guillaume"

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  1. Abstract

    Knowledge silos emerge when structural properties of organizational interaction networks limit the diffusion of information. These structural barriers are known to take many forms at different scales—hubs in otherwise sparse organizations, large dense teams, or global core-periphery structure—but we lack an understanding of how these different structures interact and shape dynamics. Here we take a first theoretical step in bridging the gap between the mathematical literature on localization of spreading dynamics and the more applied literature on knowledge silos in organizational interaction networks. To do so, we introduce a new model that considers a layered structure of teams to unveil a new form of hierarchical localization (i.e. the localization of information at the top or center of an organization) and study its interplay with known phenomena of mesoscopic localization (i.e. the localization of information in large groups),k-core localization (i.e. around denser subgraphs) and hub localization (i.e. around high degree stars). We also include a complex contagion mechanism by considering a general infection kernel which can depend on hierarchical level (influence), degree (popularity), infectious neighbors (social reinforcement) or team size (importance). This very general model allows us to explore the multifaceted phenomenon of information siloing in complex organizational interaction networks and opens the door to new optimization problems to promote or hinder the emergence of different localization regimes.

     
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  2. Social change in any society entails changes in both behaviours and institutions. We model a group-structured society in which the transmission of individual behaviour occurs in parallel with the selection of group-level institutions. We consider a cooperative behaviour that generates collective benefits for groups but does not spread between individuals on its own. Groups exhibit institutions that increase the diffusion of the behaviour within the group, but also incur a group cost. Groups adopt institutions in proportion to their fitness. Finally, the behaviour may also spread globally. We find that behaviour and institutions can be mutually reinforcing. But the model also generates behavioural source-sink dynamics when behaviour generated in institutionalized groups spreads to non-institutionalized groups and boosts their fitness. Consequently, the global diffusion of group-beneficial behaviour creates a pattern of institutional free-riding that limits the evolution of group-beneficial institutions. Our model suggests that, in a group-structured society, large-scale beneficial social change can be best achieved when the relevant behaviour and institutions remain correlated. 
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  3. SUMMARY

    International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 recovered sediments from the south Alaska continental slope that preserves a well resolved and dated inclination record over most of the past ∼43 000 yr. The Site U1419 chronology is among the highest resolution in the world, constrained by 173 radiocarbon dates, providing the ability to study Palaeomagnetic Secular Variation (PSV) on centennial to millennial timescales. This record has an exceptionally expanded late Pleistocene sedimentary record with sedimentation rates commonly exceeding 100 cm kyr–1, while also preserving a lower resolution Holocene PSV record at the top. Natural and laboratory-induced magnetic remanences of U1419 u-channels from the 112-m-long spliced record were studied using stepwise AF demagnetization. Hysteresis loops were obtained on 95 and IRM acquisition curves on 9 discrete samples to facilitate magnetic domain state, coercivity and magnetic mineralogical determinations. Due to complexities related to lithology, magnetic mineralogy, and depositional and post-depositional processes, Site U1419 sediments are not suitable for palaeointensity studies and declination could not be robustly reconstructed. Progressive (titano-)magnetite dissolution with depth results in decreasing NRM intensity and signal-to-noise that is exacerbated at higher demagnetization steps. As a result, inclination measured after the 20 mT AF demagnetization step provides the most reliable directional record. Inclination appears to be well resolved with removal of just a few intervals influenced by depositional and/or sampling and coring deformation. The shipboard inclination stack from nearby IODP Site U1418, on a new age model developed from 19 radiocarbon dates on U1418 and 18 magnetic susceptibility-based tie-points to site survey core EW0408-87JC, verifies centennial to millennial scale variations in inclination observed in U1419. Comparisons with other independently dated records from the NE Pacific and western North America suggest that these sites likely capture regional geomagnetic variability. As such, this new high-resolution and well-dated inclination record, especially robust between 15 and 30 cal kyr BP, offers new geomagnetic insights and a regional correlation tool to explore this generally understudied part of the world.

     
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  4. Quantifying the differences between networks is a challenging and ever-present problem in network science. In recent years, a multitude of diverse, ad hoc solutions to this problem have been introduced. Here, we propose that simple and well-understood ensembles of random networks—such as Erdős–Rényi graphs, random geometric graphs, Watts–Strogatz graphs, the configuration model and preferential attachment networks—are natural benchmarks for network comparison methods. Moreover, we show that the expected distance between two networks independently sampled from a generative model is a useful property that encapsulates many key features of that model. To illustrate our results, we calculate this within-ensemble graph distance and related quantities for classic network models (and several parameterizations thereof) using 20 distance measures commonly used to compare graphs. The within-ensemble graph distance provides a new framework for developers of graph distances to better understand their creations and for practitioners to better choose an appropriate tool for their particular task. 
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  5. Palaeomagnetic investigation of three sediment cores from the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea margins was performed to better constrain the regional chronostratigraphy and to gain insights into sediment magnetic properties at the North American Arctic margin during the Holocene and the preceding deglaciation. Palaeomagnetic analyses reveal that the sediments under study are characterized by low‐coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals (magnetite), mostly in the pseudo‐single domain grain‐size range, and by a strong, stable, well‐defined remanent magnetization (MAD<5°). Age models for these sediment cores were constrained by comparing their palaeomagnetic secular variations (inclination, declination and relative palaeointensity) with previously published and independently dated sedimentary marine records from the study area. The magnetostratigraphical age models were verified byAMSradiocarbon dating tie points, tephrochronology and210Pb‐based sedimentation rate estimate. The analysed cores 01JPC, 03PCand 02PCspanc. 6000, 10 500 and 13 500 cal. aBP, respectively. The estimated sedimentation rates were stable and relatively high since the deglaciation in cores 01JPC(60 cm ka−1) and 03PC(40–70 cm ka−1). Core 02PCshows much lower Holocene sedimentation rates with a strong decrease after the deglaciation from ~60 to 10–20 cm ka−1. Overall, this study illustrates the usefulness of palaeomagnetism to improve the dating of late Quaternary sedimentary records in the Arctic Ocean.

     
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