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  1. ABSTRACT

    The scaling of the specific Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate with host galaxy stellar mass $\dot{\text{N}}_\text{Ia} / \text{M}_\star \sim \text{M}_\star ^{-0.3}$ as measured in ASAS-SN and DES strongly suggests that the number of SNe Ia produced by a stellar population depends inversely on its metallicity. We estimate the strength of the required metallicity dependence by combining the average star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass with the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for galaxies and common parametrizations for the SN Ia delay-time distribution. The differences in SFHs can account for only ∼30 per cent of the increase in the specific SN Ia rate between stellar masses of M⋆ = 1010 and 107.2 M⊙. We find that an additional metallicity dependence of approximately ∼Z−0.5 is required to explain the observed scaling. This scaling matches the metallicity dependence of the close binary fraction observed in APOGEE, suggesting that the enhanced SN Ia rate in low-mass galaxies can be explained by a combination of their more extended SFHs and a higher binary fraction due to their lower metallicities. Due to the shape of the MZR, only galaxies below M⋆ ≈ 3 × 109 M⊙ are significantly affected by the metallicity-dependent SN Ia rates. The $\dot{\text{N}}_\text{Ia} / \text{M}_\star \sim \text{M}_\star ^{-0.3}$ scaling becomes shallower with increasing redshift, dropping by factor of ∼2 at 107.2 M⊙ between z = 0 and 1 with our ∼Z−0.5 scaling. With metallicity-independent rates, this decrease is a factor of ∼3. We discuss the implications of metallicity-dependent SN Ia rates for one-zone models of galactic chemical evolution.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Masses and radii of stars can be derived by combining eclipsing binary light curves with spectroscopic orbits. In our previous work, we modelled the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) light curves of more than 30 000 detached eclipsing binaries using phoebe. Here, we combine our results with 128 double-lined spectroscopic orbits from Gaia Data Release 3. We also visually inspect ASAS-SN light curves of the Gaia double-lined spectroscopic binaries on the lower main sequence and the giant branch, adding 11 binaries to our sample. We find that only 50 per cent of systems have Gaia periods and eccentricities consistent with the ASAS-SN values. We use emcee and phoebe to determine masses and radii for a total of 122 stars with median fractional uncertainties of 7.9 per cent and 6.3 per cent, respectively.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT Using blazar light curves from the optical All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and the γ-ray Fermi-LAT telescope, we performed the most extensive statistical correlation study between both bands, using a sample of 1180 blazars. This is almost an order of magnitude larger than other recent studies. Blazars represent more than 98 per cent of the AGNs detected by Fermi-LAT and are the brightest γ-ray sources in the extragalactic sky. They are essential for studying the physical properties of astrophysical jets from central black holes. However, their γ-ray flare mechanism is not fully understood. Multiwavelength correlations help constrain the dominant mechanisms of blazar variability. We search for temporal relationships between optical and γ-ray bands. Using a Bayesian Block Decomposition, we detect 1414 optical and 510 γ-ray flares, we find a strong correlation between both bands. Among all the flares, we find 321 correlated flares from 133 blazars, and derive an average rest-frame time delay of only 1.1$_{-8.5}^{+7.1}$ d, with no difference between the flat-spectrum radio quasars, BL Lacertae-like objects or low, intermediate, and high-synchrotron peaked blazar classes. Our time-delay limit rules out the hadronic proton-synchrotron model as the driver for non-orphan flares and suggests a leptonic single-zone model. Limiting our search to well-defined light curves and removing 976 potential but unclear ‘orphan’ flares, we find 191 (13 per cent) and 115 (22 per cent) clear ‘orphan’ optical and γ-ray flares. The presence of ‘orphan’ flares in both bands challenges the standard one-zone blazar flare leptonic model and suggests multizone synchrotron sites or a hadronic model for some blazars. 
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  4. Abstract

    ASASSN-14ko is a nuclear transient at the center of the AGN ESO 253−G003 that undergoes periodic flares. Optical flares were first observed in 2014 by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and their peak times are well-modeled with a period of115.21.2+1.3days and period derivative of −0.0026 ± 0.0006. Here we present ASAS-SN, Chandra, HST/STIS, NICER, Swift, and TESS data for the flares that occurred on 2020 December, 2021 April, 2021 July, and 2021 November. These four flares represent flares 18–21 of the total number of flares observed by ASAS-SN so far since 2014. The HST/STIS UV spectra evolve from blueshifted broad absorption features to redshifted broad emission features over ∼10 days. The Swift UV/optical light curves peaked as predicted by the timing model, but the peak UV luminosities that varied between flares and the UV flux in Flare 20 were roughly half the brightness of the other peaks. The X-ray luminosities consistently decreased and the spectra became harder during the UV/optical rise, but apparently without changes in absorption. Finally, two high-cadence TESS light curves from Flare 18 and Flare 12 showed that the slopes during the rising and declining phases changed over time, which indicates some stochasticity in the flare’s driving mechanism. Although ASASSN-14ko remains observationally consistent with a repeating partial tidal disruption event, these rich multi-wavelength data are in need of a detailed theoretical model.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is the first optical survey to monitor the entire sky, currently with a cadence of ≲ 24 h down to g ≲ 18.5 mag. ASAS-SN has routinely operated since 2013, collecting ∼ 2 000 to over 7 500 epochs of V- and g-band observations per field to date. This work illustrates the first analysis of ASAS-SN’s newer, deeper, and higher cadence g-band data. From an input source list of ∼55 million isolated sources with g < 18 mag, we identified 1.5 × 106 variable star candidates using a random forest (RF) classifier trained on features derived from Gaia, 2MASS, and AllWISE. Using ASAS-SN g-band light curves, and an updated RF classifier augmented with data from Citizen ASAS-SN, we classified the candidate variables into eight broad variability types. We present a catalogue of ∼116 000 new variable stars with high-classification probabilities, including ∼111 000 periodic variables and ∼5 000 irregular variables. We also recovered ∼263 000 known variable stars.

     
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  6. ABSTRACT

    We analyse new multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe out to ≈2400 d after maximum light, the latest observations to date of a SN Ia. We model the pseudo-bolometric light curve with a simple radioactive decay model and find energy input from both 57Co and 55Fe are needed to power the late-time luminosity. This is the first detection of 55Fe in a SN Ia. We consider potential sources of contamination such as a surviving companion star or delaying the deposition time-scale for 56Co positrons but these scenarios are ultimately disfavored. The relative isotopic abundances place direct constraints on the burning conditions experienced by the white dwarf (WD). Additionally, we place a conservative upper limit of <10−3 M⊙ on the synthesized mass of 44Ti. Only two classes of explosion models are currently consistent with all observations of SN 2011fe: (1) the delayed detonation of a low-ρc, near-MCh (1.2–1.3 M⊙) WD, or (2) a sub-MCh (1.0–1.1 M⊙) WD experiencing a thin-shell double detonation.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of 44 low-luminosity host galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), using hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur emission lines to measure metallicities and star formation rates. We find no statistically significant evidence that the star formation activity and metallicities of the galaxies in our sample are inconsistent with galaxies of similar luminosities and masses. We identify two 3σoutlier galaxies that have high metallicities for their stellar masses, but find that their other properties are consistent with general galaxies. The overall consistency between our sample and general galaxy samples further strengthens the evidence from more luminous SN Ia host galaxy samples that SN Ia host galaxies are typical.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT

    Detached eclipsing binaries are a fundamental tool for measuring the physical parameters of stars that are effectively evolving in isolation. Starting from more than 40 000 eclipsing binary candidates identified by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), we use PHOEBE to determine the sum of the fractional radii, the ratio of effective temperatures, the inclinations, and the eccentricities for 35 576 systems. We visually inspect all the light-curve models to verify the model fits and examine the TESS light curves, when available, to select systems with evidence for additional physics, such as spots, mass transfer, and hierarchical triples. We examine the distributions of the eclipsing binary model parameters and the orbital parameters. We identify two groups in the sum of the fractional radii and effective temperature ratio parameter space that may distinguish systems approaching the semidetached limit. Combining Gaia EDR3 with extinction estimates from three-dimensional dust maps, we examine the properties of the systems as a function of their absolute magnitude and evolutionary state. Finally, we present light curves of selected eclipsing binaries that may be of interest for follow-up studies.

     
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  9. ABSTRACT

    NGC 5273 is a known optical and X-ray variable AGN. We analyse new and archival IR, optical, UV, and X-ray data in order to characterize its long-term variability from 2000–2022. At least one optical changing-look event occurred between 2011 and 2014 when the AGN changed from a Type 1.8/1.9 Seyfert to a Type 1. It then faded considerably at all wavelengths, followed by a dramatic but slow increase in UV/optical brightness between 2021 and 2022. Near-IR (NIR) spectra in 2022 show prominent broad Paschen lines that are absent in an archival spectrum from 2010, making NGC 5273 one of the few AGNs to be observed changing-look in the NIR. We propose that NGC 5273 underwent multiple changing-look events between 2000 and 2022 – starting as a Type 1.8/1.9, NGC 5273 changes-look to a Type 1 temporarily in 2002 and again in 2014, reverting back to a Type 1.8/1.9 by 2005 and 2017, respectively. In 2022, it is again a Type 1 Seyfert. We characterize the changing-look events and their connection to the dynamic accretion and radiative processes in NGC 5273 and propose that the variable luminosity (and thus, Eddington ratio) of the source is changing how the broad-line region (BLR) reprocesses the continuum emission.

     
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  10. ABSTRACT We present new Large Binocular Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope data for the failed supernova candidate N6946-BH1. We also report an unsuccessful attempt to detect the candidate with Chandra. The ∼300 000 $\, \mathrm{L}_\odot$ red supergiant progenitor underwent an outburst in 2009 and has since disappeared in the optical. In the LBT data from 2008 May through 2019 October, the upper limit on any increase in the R-band luminosity of the source is $2000 \, \mathrm{L}_\odot$. HST and Spitzer observations show that the source continued to fade in the near-IR and mid-IR, fading by approximately a factor of 2 between 2015 October and 2017 September to 2900 $\, \mathrm{L}_\odot$ at Hband (F160W). Models of the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with a surviving star obscured either by an ongoing wind or dust formed in the transient. The disappearance of N6946-BH1 remains consistent with a failed supernova, but the post-failure phenomenology requires further theoretical study. 
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