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  1. This data set is a derived data set based on fish catch data. Data are collected annually to enable us to track the fish assemblages of eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Sampling on Lakes Monona, Wingra, and Fish started in 1995; sampling on other lakes started in 1981. Sampling is done at six littoral zone sites per lake with seine, minnow or crayfish traps, and fyke nets; a boat-mounted electrofishing system samples three littoral transects. Vertically hung gill nets are used to obtain two pelagic samples per lake from the deepest point. A trammel net samples across the thermocline at two sites per lake. In the bog lakes only fyke nets and minnow traps are deployed. Parameters measured include species-level identification and lengths for all fish caught, and weight and scale samples from a subset. Derived data sets include species richness, catch per unit effort, and size distribution by species, lake, and year. Protocol used to generate data: Day seines were only used in 1981 and have been eliminated from this data set to make sampling effort across years comparable. Number caught for each species is summed over repetitions of a gear within a lake and over depth. For information on fish stocking by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in LTER lakes in Dane and Vilas counties, see https://dnr.wi.gov/fisheriesmanagement/Public/Summary/Index. Beach seining was discontinued after 2019. The only sampling done in 2020 were a single gill-netting sample in Sparkling, Crystal, and Trout lakes. Sampling in Fish Lake was missed in 2021 due to significant lake level changes. Data from the two bogs is missing in 2022. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 11 
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  2. This data set is a derived data set based on fish catch and length data. Data are collected annually to enable us to track the fish assemblages of eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Sampling on Lakes Monona, Wingra, and Fish started in 1995; sampling on other lakes started in 1981. Sampling is done at six littoral zone sites per lake with seine, minnow or crayfish traps, and fyke nets; a boat-mounted electrofishing system samples three littoral transects. Vertically hung gill nets are used to obtain two pelagic samples per lake from the deepest point. A trammel net samples across the thermocline at two sites per lake. In the bog lakes only fyke nets and minnow traps are deployed. Parameters measured include species-level identification and lengths for all fish caught, and scale samples and weight from a subset. Derived data sets include species richness, catch per unit effort, and size distribution by species, lake, and year. Dominant species vary from lake to lake. Perch, rockbass, and bluegill are common, with walleye, large and small mouth basses, northern pike and muskellunge as major piscivores. Cisco have been present in the pelagic waters of four lakes, and the exotic species, rainbow smelt, is present in two. The bog lakes contain mudminnows. Protocol used to generate data: The number of fish caught in each five mm length interval (0 
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  3. Crayfish data include crayfish catch in cylindrical minnow traps baited with beef liver and the occasional occurrence in other gear used to sample fish. Traps are now placed at fyke net locations in three study lakes (Big Muskellunge, Sparkling, and Trout), but historical data exists in nine study lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Individuals are identified to species and counted. In Trout and Sparkling Lake more detailed surveys have been conducted during the summer on an ad hoc basis to track distribution and abundance of the invading species Orconectes rusticus. In Sparkling lake, Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) was removed from 2001 to 2008. (Hein et al, https://doi.org/10.1139/f05-229). Additional data sets consist of pre-LTER sets (initiated in late June 1972) gathered by Capelli (Ph.D. dissertation) and Lorman (Ph.D. dissertation). Most of pre-LTER data is detailed distribution in Trout Lake, and community composition in other area lakes. Note that 2020 data does not exist due to insufficient sampling, and beach seining was discontinued after the 2019 season. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 3 
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  4. Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Noble F. Lee municipal airport located at Woodruff, WI for three purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling and Trout Lakes used for evaporation calculations, and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site, and 3) to measure radiation for primary production studies in the study lakes at the site. The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak wind speed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken typically at 1 minute intervals as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages. Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dew point temperature as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Number of sites: 1. Date/time is Central Standard Time (GMT - 06:00) throughout the year. 
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  5. Soil temperature data are being gathered at a site at the Noble F. Lee municipal airport located at Woodruff, WI. Soil temperature is measured at depths of 0.05m, 0.1m and 0.5m at 1-minute intervals. High resolution data are collected (typically at 10 minute intervals) along with 1-hour and 24-hour averages. Daily minimum and maximum soil temperatures and the times these occur are reported for these same depths. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Prior to August 2006, only hourly averaged data are available. Starting in 2008, soil temperatures are only available from 0.5m depth. Sampling frequency: varies for instantaneous samples; averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples. Number of sites: 1. 
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  6. The instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from thermistors placed throughout the water column. From 2004 to mid-summer 2006, thermistors were placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 14m, and every 2 to 4m from 14m to the bottom of the water column at 31m. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. In July 2006, a new thermistor chain was deployed with sensors placed every meter from the surface through a depth of 19 meters. This configuration lasted through 2008 and was used again 2012-2014. In the period 2009-2011, thermistors were place every meter down to 20m and then every two meters to a final depth of 32m. From 2015 to present, thermistors are spaced 0.25 meters from the surface to 1m, 0.5 meters down to 4 meters depth, and 1m spacing to 14 meters. Four more thermistors are at depths of 16, 20, 25 and 30 meters. Sampling frequency was 10 minutes in 2004-2005 and again 2007-2010. It was 2 minutes in 2006. Since 2011, sampling frequency has been every minute. Hourly and daily averages are also provided. Number of sites: 1. 
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  7. Data are collected annually to enable us to track the fish assemblages of eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Sampling on Lakes Monona, Wingra, and Fish started in 1995; sampling on other lakes started in 1981. Sampling is done at six littoral zone sites per lake with seine, minnow or crayfish traps, and fyke nets; a boat-mounted electrofishing system samples four littoral transects. Vertically hung gill nets are used to obtain two pelagic samples per lake from the deepest point. A trammel net samples across the thermocline at two sites per lake. In the bog lakes only fyke nets and minnow traps are deployed. Parameters measured include species-level identification and lengths for all fish caught, and weight and scale samples from a subset. Dominant species vary from lake to lake. Perch, rockbass, and bluegill are common, with walleye, large and smallmouth bass, northern pike and muskellunge as major piscivores. Cisco have been present in the pelagic waters of four lakes, and an exotic species, rainbow smelt, is present in two. The bog lakes contain mudminnows. Beach seining was discontinued after the 2019 season. The only sampling done in 2020 were a single gill-netting replicate in Sparkling, Crystal, and Trout lakes. Sampling in Fish Lake was missed in 2021 due to significant lake level changes. Data from the two bogs is missing in 2022. Sampling Frequency: annually Number of sites: 11. 
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  8. This data set is a derived data set based on fish catch data. Data are collected annually to enable us to track the fish assemblages of eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Sampling on Lakes Monona, Wingra, and Fish started in 1995; sampling on other lakes started in 1981. Sampling is done at six littoral zone sites per lake with seine, minnow or crayfish traps, and fyke nets; a boat-mounted electrofishing system samples three littoral transects. Vertically hung gill nets are used to obtain two pelagic samples per lake from the deepest point. A trammel net samples across the thermocline at two sites per lake. In the bog lakes only fyke nets and minnow traps are deployed. Parameters measured include species-level identification and lengths for all fish caught, and weight and scale samples from a subset. Derived data sets include species richness, catch per unit effort, and size distribution by species, lake, and year. Species richness for a lake is the number of fish species caught in that lake during the annual fish sampling. Hybrids captured are only included in the richness value if neither of the two hybridized species are caught in the lake that year. Fish identified only to genus or higher taxonomic level are not included if any fish identified to species within that genus or higher taxonomic level are caught. E.g., Unidentified Chub would be only included in the richness value if no other chub is caught in that lake that year. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 11 Notes: Beach seining was discontinued after 2019. 2020 data does not exist due to insufficient sampling. In 2021, sampling in Fish Lake was suspended due to significant lake level changes. Data is missing for the two bogs in 2022. Please consult NTL's website for information on experimental lake manipulations and the DNR's website for management activities 
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  9. Abstract

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and its concentrations have tripled in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution. There is evidence that global warming has increased CH4emissions from freshwater ecosystems1,2, providing positive feedback to the global climate. Yet for rivers and streams, the controls and the magnitude of CH4emissions remain highly uncertain3,4. Here we report a spatially explicit global estimate of CH4emissions from running waters, accounting for 27.9 (16.7–39.7) Tg CH4 per year and roughly equal in magnitude to those of other freshwater systems5,6. Riverine CH4emissions are not strongly temperature dependent, with low average activation energy (EM = 0.14 eV) compared with that of lakes and wetlands (EM = 0.96 eV)1. By contrast, global patterns of emissions are characterized by large fluxes in high- and low-latitude settings as well as in human-dominated environments. These patterns are explained by edaphic and climate features that are linked to anoxia in and near fluvial habitats, including a high supply of organic matter and water saturation in hydrologically connected soils. Our results highlight the importance of land–water connections in regulating CH4supply to running waters, which is vulnerable not only to direct human modifications but also to several climate change responses on land.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 21, 2024
  10. Zooplankton samples are collected from the seven primary northern lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, and Trout lakes and bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog], and 12-15 [Trout Bog]) at two to nine depths using a 2m long Schindler Patalas trap (53um mesh) and with vertical tows using a Wisconsin net (20cm diameter, 80um mesh). Zooplankton samples are preserved in buffered formalin (until 2001) or 95% ethanol (2001 onwards). Subsamples of the individual Schindler trap samples are combined to create a hypsometrically pooled sample which is counted for copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers. Data are summed over sex and stage to provide a lake-wide estimate of organisms per liter for each species. A minimum of 5 samples per lake-year are counted. The data set also contains length measurements for copepods and cladocerans. The Wisconsin net sample and the pooled sample are archived in the UW Zoology museum. Each year one complete set of Schindler Patalas depth samples collected in August is also archived. From 1981 to August 1986 - used a 0.5m high Schindler Patalas trap. Sampling Frequency: every two weeks during ice-free season, every 5 weeks during ice-cover. Number of sites: 7 
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