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  1. Abstract

    CHESS 3 represents an improved human gene catalog based on nearly 10,000 RNA-seq experiments across 54 body sites. It significantly improves current genome annotation by integrating the latest reference data and algorithms, machine learning techniques for noise filtering, and new protein structure prediction methods. CHESS 3 contains 41,356 genes, including 19,839 protein-coding genes and 158,377 transcripts, with 14,863 protein-coding transcripts not in other catalogs. It includes all MANE transcripts and at least one transcript for most RefSeq and GENCODE genes. On the CHM13 human genome, the CHESS 3 catalog contains an additional 129 protein-coding genes. CHESS 3 is available at

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  2. Abstract

    The DescribePROT database of amino acid-level descriptors of protein structures and functions was substantially expanded since its release in 2020. This expansion includes substantial increase in the size, scope, and quality of the underlying data, the addition of experimental structural information, the inclusion of new data download options, and an upgraded graphical interface. DescribePROT currently covers 19 structural and functional descriptors for proteins in 273 reference proteomes generated by 11 accurate and complementary predictive tools. Users can search our resource in multiple ways, interact with the data using the graphical interface, and download data at various scales including individual proteins, entire proteomes, and whole database. The annotations in DescribePROT are useful for a broad spectrum of studies that include investigations of protein structure and function, development and validation of predictive tools, and to support efforts in understanding molecular underpinnings of diseases and development of therapeutics. DescribePROT can be freely accessed at

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  3. Abstract ColabFold offers accelerated prediction of protein structures and complexes by combining the fast homology search of MMseqs2 with AlphaFold2 or RoseTTAFold. ColabFold’s 40−60-fold faster search and optimized model utilization enables prediction of close to 1,000 structures per day on a server with one graphics processing unit. Coupled with Google Colaboratory, ColabFold becomes a free and accessible platform for protein folding. ColabFold is open-source software available at and its novel environmental databases are available at . 
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  4. Abstract Summary

    PhyloCSF++ is an efficient and parallelized C++ implementation of the popular PhyloCSF method to distinguish protein-coding and non-coding regions in a genome based on multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). It can score alignments or produce browser tracks for entire genomes in the wig file format. Additionally, PhyloCSF++ annotates coding sequences in GFF/GTF files using precomputed tracks or computes and scores MSAs on the fly with MMseqs2.

    Availability and implementation

    PhyloCSF++ is released under the AGPLv3 license. Binaries and source code are available at The software can be installed through bioconda. A variety of tracks can be accessed through

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  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We present DescribePROT, the database of predicted amino acid-level descriptors of structure and function of proteins. DescribePROT delivers a comprehensive collection of 13 complementary descriptors predicted using 10 popular and accurate algorithms for 83 complete proteomes that cover key model organisms. The current version includes 7.8 billion predictions for close to 600 million amino acids in 1.4 million proteins. The descriptors encompass sequence conservation, position specific scoring matrix, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, intrinsic disorder, disordered linkers, signal peptides, MoRFs and interactions with proteins, DNA and RNAs. Users can search DescribePROT by the amino acid sequence and the UniProt accession number and entry name. The pre-computed results are made available instantaneously. The predictions can be accesses via an interactive graphical interface that allows simultaneous analysis of multiple descriptors and can be also downloaded in structured formats at the protein, proteome and whole database scale. The putative annotations included by DescriPROT are useful for a broad range of studies, including: investigations of protein function, applied projects focusing on therapeutics and diseases, and in the development of predictors for other protein sequence descriptors. Future releases will expand the coverage of DescribePROT. DescribePROT can be accessed at 
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  6. Abstract Motivation

    The rapid drop in sequencing costs has produced many more (predicted) protein sequences than can feasibly be functionally annotated with wet-lab experiments. Thus, many computational methods have been developed for this purpose. Most of these methods employ homology-based inference, approximated via sequence alignments, to transfer functional annotations between proteins. The increase in the number of available sequences, however, has drastically increased the search space, thus significantly slowing down alignment methods.


    Here we describe homology-derived functional similarity of proteins (HFSP), a novel computational method that uses results of a high-speed alignment algorithm, MMseqs2, to infer functional similarity of proteins on the basis of their alignment length and sequence identity. We show that our method is accurate (85% precision) and fast (more than 40-fold speed increase over state-of-the-art). HFSP can help correct at least a 16% error in legacy curations, even for a resource of as high quality as Swiss-Prot. These findings suggest HFSP as an ideal resource for large-scale functional annotation efforts.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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