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  1. Abstract

    Atmospheric conditions affect the release of anemophilous pollen, and the timing and magnitude will be altered by climate change. As simulated with a pollen emission model and future climate data, warmer end-of-century temperatures (4–6 K) shift the start of spring emissions 10–40 days earlier and summer/fall weeds and grasses 5–15 days later and lengthen the season duration. Phenological shifts depend on the temperature response of individual taxa, with convergence in some regions and divergence in others. Temperature and precipitation alter daily pollen emission maxima by −35 to 40% and increase the annual total pollen emission by 16–40% due to changes in phenology and temperature-driven pollen production. Increasing atmospheric CO2may increase pollen production, and doubling production in conjunction with climate increases end-of-century emissions up to 200%. Land cover change modifies the distribution of pollen emitters, yet the effects are relatively small (<10%) compared to climate or CO2. These simulations indicate that increasing pollen and longer seasons will increase the likelihood of seasonal allergies.

  2. Abstract

    We use TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) measurements to identify cropland soil nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions at daily to seasonal scales in the U.S. Southern Mississippi River Valley. Evaluating 1.5 years of TROPOMI observations with a box model, we observe seasonality in local NOxenhancements and estimate maximum cropland soil NOxemissions (15–34 ng N m−2 s−1) early in growing season (May–June). We observe soil NOxpulsing in response to daily decreases in volumetric soil moisture (VSM) as measured by the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Daily NO2enhancements reach up to 0.8 × 1015 molecules cm−24–8 days after precipitation when VSM decreases to ~30%, reflecting emissions behavior distinct from previously defined soil NOxpulse events. This demonstrates that TROPOMI NO2observations, combined with observations of underlying process controls (e.g., soil moisture), can constrain soil NOxprocesses from space.

  3. ABSTRACT To explore the various couplings across space and time and between ecosystems in a consistent manner, atmospheric modeling is moving away from the fractured limited-scale modeling strategy of the past toward a unification of the range of scales inherent in the Earth system. This paper describes the forward-looking Multi-Scale Infrastructure for Chemistry and Aerosols (MUSICA), which is intended to become the next-generation community infrastructure for research involving atmospheric chemistry and aerosols. MUSICA will be developed collaboratively by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and university and government researchers, with the goal of serving the international research and applications communities. The capability of unifying various spatiotemporal scales, coupling to other Earth system components, and process-level modularization will allow advances in both fundamental and applied research in atmospheric composition, air quality, and climate and is also envisioned to become a platform that addresses the needs of policy makers and stakeholders.
  4. Abstract

    At the University of Michigan Biological Station during the 2016 AMOS field campaign, isoprene concentrations typically peak in the early afternoon (around 15:00 local time, LT) under well‐mixed conditions. However, an end‐of‐day peak (around 21:00 LT) occurs on 23% of the campaign days, followed by a rapid removal (from 21:00–22:00 LT) at rate of 0.57 hr−1during the day‐to‐night transition period. During the end‐of‐day peak, in‐canopy isoprene concentrations increase by 77% (from 3.5 to 6.2 ppbv) on average. Stratification and weak winds (<3.4 m s−1at 46 m) significantly suppress turbulent exchanges between in‐ and above‐canopy, leading to accumulation of isoprene emitted at dusk. A critical standard deviation of the vertical velocity (σw) of 0.14, 0.2, and 0.29 m s−1is identified to detect the end‐of‐day peak for the height of 13, 21, and 34 m, respectively. In 85% of the end‐of‐day cases, the wind speed increases above 2.5 m s−1after the peak along with a shift in wind direction, and turbulence is reestablished. Therefore, the wind speed of 2.5 m s−1is considered as the threshold point where turbulence switches from being independent of wind speed to dependent on wind speed. The reinstated turbulence accounts for 80% of the subsequent isoprene removal with the remaining 20% explained by chemical reactions with hydroxyl radicals,more »ozone, and nitrate radicals. Observed isoprene fluxes do not support the argument that the end‐of‐day peak is reduced by vertical turbulent mixing, and we hypothesize that horizontal advection may play a role.

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  5. Abstract

    Clouds can modify terrestrial productivity by reducing total surface radiation and increasing diffuse radiation, which may be more evenly distributed through plant canopies and increase ecosystem carbon uptake (the “diffuse fertilization effect”). Previous work at ecosystem-level observational towers demonstrated that diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm) increases with cloud optical thickness (COT) until a COT of approximately 10, defined here as the “low-COT regime.” To identify whether the low-COT regime also influences carbon uptake on broader spatial and longer temporal time scales, we use global, monthly data to investigate the influence of COT on carbon uptake in three land-cover types: shrublands, forests, and croplands. While there are limitations in global gross primary production (GPP) products, global COT data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reveal that during the growing season tropical and subtropical regions more frequently experience a monthly low-COT regime (>20% of the time) than other regions of the globe. Contrary to ecosystem-level studies, comparisons of monthly COT with monthly satellite-derived solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and modeled GPP indicate that, although carbon uptake generally increases with COT under the low-COT regime, the correlations between COT and carbon uptake are insignificant (p > 0.05) in shrublands, forests, andmore »croplands at regional scales. When scaled globally, vegetated regions under the low-COT regime account for only 4.9% of global mean annual GPP, suggesting that clouds and their diffuse fertilization effect become less significant drivers of terrestrial carbon uptake at broader spatial and temporal scales.

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