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  1. Abstract

    Reconnection in the magnetotail occurs along so‐called X‐lines, where magnetic field lines tear and detach from plasma on microscopic spatial scales (comparable to particle gyroradii). In 2017–2020, the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission detected X‐lines in the magnetotail enabling their investigation on local scales. However, the global structure and evolution of these X‐lines, critical for understanding their formation and total energy conversion mechanisms, remained virtually unknown because of the intrinsically local nature of observations and the extreme sparsity of concurrent data. Here, we show that mining a multi‐mission archive of space magnetometer data collected over the last 26 yr and then fitting a magnetic field representation modeled using flexible basis‐functions faithfully reconstructs the global pattern of X‐lines; 24 of the 26 modeled X‐lines match (Bz = 0 isocontours are within ∼2 Earth radii orRE) or nearly match (Bz = 2 nT isocontours are within ∼2RE) the locations of the MMS encountered reconnection sites. The obtained global reconnection picture is considered in the context of substorm activity, including conventional substorms and more complex events.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Thek‐nearest‐neighbor technique is used to mine a multimission magnetometer database for a subset of data points from time intervals that are similar to the storm state of the magnetosphere for a particular moment in time. These subsets of data are then used to fit an empirical magnetic field model. Performing this for each snapshot in time reconstructs the dynamic evolution of the magnetic and electric current density distributions during storms. However, because weaker storms occur more frequently than stronger storms, the reconstructions are biased toward them. We demonstrate that distance weighting the nearest‐neighbors mitigates this issue while allowing a sufficient amount of data to be included in the fitting procedure to limit overfitting. Using this technique, we reconstruct the distribution of the magnetic field and electric currents and their evolution for two storms, the intense 17–19 March 2015 “Saint Patrick's Day” storm and a moderate storm occurring on 13–15 July 2013, from which the pressure distributions can be computed assuming isotropy and by integrating the steady‐state force‐balance equation. As the main phase of a storm progresses in time, the westward ring current density and pressure increases in the inner magnetosphere particularly on the nightside, becoming more symmetric as the recovery phase progresses. We validate the empirical pressure by comparing it to the observed pressures from the Van Allen Probes mission by summing over particle fluxes from all available energy channels and species.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Reconstruction of the magnetic field, electric current, and plasma pressure is provided using a new data mining (DM) method with weighted nearest neighbors (NN) for strong storms with the storm activity indexSym‐H < −300 nT, the Bastille Day event (July 2000), and the 20 November 2003 superstorm. It is shown that the new method significantly reduces the statistical bias of the original NN algorithm toward weaker storms. In the DM approach the magnetic field is reconstructed using a small NN subset of the large historical database, with the subset numberKNN ≫ 1being still much larger than any simultaneous multiprobe observation number. This allows one to fit with observations a very flexible magnetic field model using basis function expansions for equatorial and field‐aligned currents, and at the same time, to keep the model sensitive to storm variability. This also allows one to calculate the plasma pressure by integrating the quasi‐static force balance equation with the isotropic plasma approximation. For strong storms of particular importance becomes the resolution of the eastward current, which prevents the divergence of the pressure integral. It is shown that in spite of the strong reduction of the dominant NN number in the new weighted NN algorithm to capture strong storm features, it is still possible to resolve the eastward current and to retrieve plasma pressure distributions. It is found that the pressure peak for strong storms may be as close as2.1REto Earth and its value may exceed 300 nPa.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Substorm‐type evolution of the Earth's magnetosphere is investigated by mining more than two decades (1995–2017) of spaceborne magnetometer data from multiple missions including the first two years (2016‐2017) of the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission. This investigation reveals interesting features of plasma evolution distinct from ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) behavior: X‐lines, thin current sheets, and regions with the tailward gradient of the equatorial magnetic fieldBz. X‐lines are found to form mainly beyond 20RE, but for strong driving, with the solar wind electric field exceeding ∼5mV/m, they may come closer. For substorms with weaker driving, X‐lines may be preceded by redistribution of the magnetic flux in the tailwardBzgradient regions, similar to the magnetic flux release instability discovered earlier in PIC and MHD simulations as a precursor mechanism of the reconnection onset. Current sheets in the growth phase may be as thin as 0.2RE, comparable to the thermal ions gyroradius, and at the same time, as long as 15RE. Such an aspect ratio is inconsistent with the isotropic force balance for observed magnetic field configurations. These findings can help resolve kinetic mechanisms of substorm dipolarizations and adjust kinetic generalizations of global MHD models of the magnetosphere. They can also guide and complement microscale analysis of nonideal effects.

     
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