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  1. Abstract

    It remains a challenge to design aqueous electrolytes to secure the complete reversibility of zinc metal anodes. The concentrated water‐in‐salt electrolytes, e.g., 30 m ZnCl2, are promising candidates to address the challenges of the Zn metal anode. However, the pure 30 m ZnCl2electrolyte fails to deliver a smooth surface morphology and a practically relevant Coulombic efficiency. Herein, it is reported that a small concentration of vanillin, 5 mg mLwater−1, added to 30 m ZnCl2transforms the reversibility of Zn metal anode by eliminating dendrites, lowering the Hammett acidity, and forming an effective solid electrolyte interphase. The presence of vanillin in the electrolyte enables the Zn metal anode to exhibit a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.34% at a low current density of 0.2 mA cm−2, at which the impacts of the hydrogen evolution reaction are allowed to play out. Using this new electrolyte, a full cell Zn metal battery with an anode/cathode capacity (N/P) ratio of 2:1 demonstrates no capacity fading over 800 cycles.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The sluggish ion diffusion and electrolyte freezing with volumetric changes limit the low‐temperature performance of rechargeable batteries. Herein, a high‐rate aqueous proton battery (APB) operated at and below −78 °C via a 62 wt% (9.5 m) H3PO4electrolyte is reported. The APB is a rocking‐chair battery that operates with protons commuting between a Prussian blue cathode and an MoO3anode. At −78 °C, the APB full cells exhibit stable cycle life for 450 cycles, high round‐trip efficiency of 85%, and appreciable power performance. The APB delivers 30% of its room‐temperature capacity even at −88 °C. The proton storage mechanism is investigated by ex situ synchrotron XRD, XAS, and XPS. The APB pouch cells demonstrate no capacity fading at −78 °C, and thus offers a safe and reliable candidate for high‐latitude applications.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We report reversible electrochemical insertion of NO3into manganese(II, III) oxide (Mn3O4) as a cathode for aqueous dual‐ion batteries. Characterization by TGA, FTIR, EDX, XANES, EXAFS, and EQCM collectively provides unequivocal evidence that reversible oxidative NO3insertion takes place inside Mn3O4. Ex situ HRTEM and corresponding EDX mapping results suggest that NO3insertion de‐crystallizes the structure of Mn3O4. Kinetic studies reveal fast migration of NO3in the Mn3O4structure. This finding may open a new direction for novel low‐cost aqueous dual‐ion batteries.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We report reversible electrochemical insertion of NO3into manganese(II, III) oxide (Mn3O4) as a cathode for aqueous dual‐ion batteries. Characterization by TGA, FTIR, EDX, XANES, EXAFS, and EQCM collectively provides unequivocal evidence that reversible oxidative NO3insertion takes place inside Mn3O4. Ex situ HRTEM and corresponding EDX mapping results suggest that NO3insertion de‐crystallizes the structure of Mn3O4. Kinetic studies reveal fast migration of NO3in the Mn3O4structure. This finding may open a new direction for novel low‐cost aqueous dual‐ion batteries.

     
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