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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Morphological (e.g. shape, size, and height) and function (e.g. working, living, and shopping) information of buildings is highly needed for urban planning and management as well as other applications such as city-scale building energy use modeling. Due to the limited availability of socio-economic geospatial data, it is more challenging to map building functions than building morphological information, especially over large areas. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework to map building functions in 50 U.S. cities by integrating multi-source web-based geospatial data. First, a web crawler was developed to extract Points of Interest (POIs) from, and a map crawler was developed to extract POIs and land use parcels from Google Maps. Second, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm named OneClassSVM was used to identify residential buildings based on landscape features derived from Microsoft building footprints. Third, the type ratio of POIs and the area ratio of land use parcels were used to identify six non-residential functions (i.e. hospital, hotel, school, shop, restaurant, and office). The accuracy assessment indicates that the proposed framework performed well, with an average overall accuracy of 94% and a kappa coefficient of 0.63. With the worldwide coverage of Google Maps and, the proposed framework is transferable to other cities over the world. The data products generated from this study are of great use for quantitative city-scale urban studies, such as building energy use modeling at the single building level over large areas. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  3. Nelson, Karen E (Ed.)
    Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN), an increasing anthropogenic driver, is widespread and shows rapid expansion with potential adverse impact on the terrestrial ecosystem. However, whether and to what extent does ALAN affect plant phenology, a critical factor influencing the timing of terrestrial ecosystem processes, remains unexplored due to limited ALAN observation. Here, we used the Black Marble ALAN product and phenology observations from USA National Phenology Network to investigate the impact of ALAN on deciduous woody plants phenology in the conterminous United States. We found that (1) ALAN significantly advanced the date of breaking leaf buds by 8.9 ± 6.9 days (mean ± SD) and delayed the coloring of leaves by 6.0 ± 11.9 days on average; (2) the magnitude of phenological changes was significantly correlated with the intensity of ALAN (P < 0.001); and (3) there was an interaction between ALAN and temperature on the coloring of leaves, but not on breaking leaf buds. We further showed that under future climate warming scenarios, ALAN will accelerate the advance in breaking leaf buds but exert a more complex effect on the coloring of leaves. This study suggests intensified ALAN may have far-reaching but underappreciated consequences in disrupting key ecosystem functions and services, which requires an interdisciplinary approach to investigate. Developing lighting strategies that minimize the impact of ALAN on ecosystems, especially those embedded and surrounding major cities, is challenging but must be pursued. 
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