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  1. Abstract Programming with logic for sophisticated applications must deal with recursion and negation, which together have created significant challenges in logic, leading to many different, conflicting semantics of rules. This paper describes a unified language, DA logic, for design and analysis logic, based on the unifying founded semantics and constraint semantics, that supports the power and ease of programming with different intended semantics. The key idea is to provide meta-constraints, support the use of uncertain information in the form of either undefined values or possible combinations of values and promote the use of knowledge units that can be instantiated bymore »any new predicates, including predicates with additional arguments.« less
  2. Abstract Neural state classification (NSC) is a recently proposed method for runtime predictive monitoring of hybrid automata (HA) using deep neural networks (DNNs). NSC trains a DNN as an approximate reachability predictor that labels an HA state x as positive if an unsafe state is reachable from x within a given time bound, and labels x as negative otherwise. NSC predictors have very high accuracy, yet are prone to prediction errors that can negatively impact reliability. To overcome this limitation, we present neural predictive monitoring (NPM), a technique that complements NSC predictions with estimates of the predictive uncertainty. These measuresmore »yield principled criteria for the rejection of predictions likely to be incorrect, without knowing the true reachability values. We also present an active learning method that significantly reduces the NSC predictor’s error rate and the percentage of rejected predictions. We develop two versions of NPM based, respectively, on the use of frequentist and Bayesian techniques to learn the predictor and the rejection rule. Both versions are highly efficient, with computation times on the order of milliseconds, and effective, managing in our experimental evaluation to successfully reject almost all incorrect predictions. In our experiments on a benchmark suite of six hybrid systems, we found that the frequentist approach consistently outperforms the Bayesian one. We also observed that the Bayesian approach is less practical, requiring a careful and problem-specific choice of hyperparameters.« less
  3. Abstract Logic rules and inference are fundamental in computer science and have been studied extensively. However, prior semantics of logic languages can have subtle implications and can disagree significantly, on even very simple programs, including in attempting to solve the well-known Russell’s paradox. These semantics are often non-intuitive and hard-to-understand when unrestricted negation is used in recursion. This paper describes a simple new semantics for logic rules, founded semantics, and its straightforward extension to another simple new semantics, constraint semantics, that unify the core of different prior semantics. The new semantics support unrestricted negation, as well as unrestricted existential andmore »universal quantifications. They are uniquely expressive and intuitive by allowing assumptions about the predicates, rules and reasoning to be specified explicitly, as simple and precise binary choices. They are completely declarative and relate cleanly to prior semantics. In addition, founded semantics can be computed in linear time in the size of the ground program.« less
  4. Kanhere, Salil S. ; Patil, Vishwas T. ; Sural, Shamik ; Gaur, Manoj Singh (Ed.)