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  1. ABSTRACT We report a new equation of state (EoS) of cold and hot hyperonic matter constructed in the framework of the quark–meson-coupling (QMC-A) model. The QMC-A EoS yields results compatible with available nuclear physics constraints and astrophysical observations. It covers the range of temperatures from T = 0 to 100 MeV, entropies per particle S/A between 0 and 6, lepton fractions from YL = 0.0 to 0.6, and baryon number densities nB = 0.05–1.2 fm−3. Applications of the QMC-A EoS are made to cold neutron stars (NSs) and to hot proto-neutron stars (PNSs) in two scenarios: (i) lepton-rich matter with trapped neutrinos (PNS-I) and (ii) deleptonized chemically equilibrated matter (PNS-II). We find that the QMC-A model predicts hyperons in amounts growing with increasing temperature and density, thus suggesting not only their presence in PNS but also, most likely, in NS merger remnants. The nucleon–hyperon phase transition is studied through the adiabatic index and the speed of sound cs. We observe that the lowering of (cs/c)2 to and below the conformal limit of 1/3 is strongly correlated with the onset of hyperons. Rigid rotation of cold and hot stars, their moments of inertia and Kepler frequencies are also explored. The QMC-A model results are compared with twomore »relativistic models, the chiral mean field model (CMF), and the generalized relativistic density functional (GRDF) with DD2 (nucleon-only) and DD2Y-T (full baryon octet) interactions. Similarities and differences are discussed.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We study the flow structure in 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion on to Sagittarius A* via the magnetized winds of the orbiting Wolf–Rayet stars. These simulations cover over 3 orders of magnitude in radius to reach ≈300 gravitational radii, with only one poorly constrained parameter (the magnetic field in the stellar winds). Even for winds with relatively weak magnetic fields (e.g. plasma β ∼ 106), flux freezing/compression in the inflowing gas amplifies the field to β ∼ few well before it reaches the event horizon. Overall, the dynamics, accretion rate, and spherically averaged flow profiles (e.g. density, velocity) in our MHD simulations are remarkably similar to analogous hydrodynamic simulations. We attribute this to the broad distribution of angular momentum provided by the stellar winds, which sources accretion even absent much angular momentum transport. We find that the magneto-rotational instability is not important because of (i) strong magnetic fields that are amplified by flux freezing/compression, and (ii) the rapid inflow/outflow times of the gas and inefficient radiative cooling preclude circularization. The primary effect of magnetic fields is that they drive a polar outflow that is absent in hydrodynamics. The dynamical state of the accretion flow found in our simulationsmore »is unlike the rotationally supported tori used as initial conditions in horizon scale simulations, which could have implications for models being used to interpret Event Horizon Telescope and GRAVITY observations of Sgr A*.« less
  3. Over the last decade, the vector-apodizing phase plate (vAPP) coronagraph has been developed from concept to on-sky application in many high-contrast imaging systems on 8 m class telescopes. The vAPP is a geometric-phase patterned coronagraph that is inherently broadband, and its manufacturing is enabled only by direct-write technology for liquid-crystal patterns. The vAPP generates two coronagraphic point spread functions (PSFs) that cancel starlight on opposite sides of the PSF and have opposite circular polarization states. The efficiency, that is, the amount of light in these PSFs, depends on the retardance offset from a half-wave of the liquid-crystal retarder. Using different liquid-crystal recipes to tune the retardance, different vAPPs operate with high efficiencies (><#comment/>96%<#comment/>) in the visible and thermal infrared (0.55 µm to 5 µm). Since 2015, seven vAPPs have been installed in a total of six different instruments, including Magellan/MagAO, Magellan/MagAO-X, Subaru/SCExAO, and LBT/LMIRcam. Using two integral field spectrographs installed on the latter two instruments, these vAPPs can provide low-resolution spectra (R∼<#comment/>30) between 1 µm and 5 µm. We review the design process, development, commissioning, on-sky performance, and first scientific results of all commissioned vAPPs. We report on the lessons learned and conclude with perspectives for future developmentsmore »and applications.

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