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  1. Interactive textbooks generate big data through student reading participation, including animations, question sets, and auto-graded homework. Animations are multi-step, dynamic visuals with text captions. By dividing new content into smaller chunks of information, student engagement is expected to be high, which aligns with tenets of cognitive load theory. Specifically, students’ clicks are recorded and measure usage, completion, and view time per step and for entire animations. Animation usage data from an interactive textbook for a chemical engineering course in Material and Energy Balances accounts for 60,000 animation views across 140+ unique animations. Data collected across five cohorts between 2016 and 2020 used various metrics to capture animation usage including watch and re-watch rates as well as the length of animation views. Variations in view rate and time were examined across content, parsed by book chapter, and five animation characterizations (Concept, Derivation, Figures and Plots, Physical World, and Spreadsheets). Important findings include: 1) Animation views were at or above 100% for all chapters and cohorts, 2) Median view time varies from 22 s (2-step) to 59 s (6-step) - a reasonable attention span for students and cognitive load, 3) Median view time for animations characterized as Derivation was the longest (40 s) compared to Physical World animations, which resulted in the shortest time (20 s). 
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Abstract The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 2,143 new measurements from 709 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. Particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 120 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including a new review on Machine Learning, and one on Spectroscopy of Light Meson Resonances. The Review is divided into two volumes. Volume 1 includes the Summary Tables and 97 review articles. Volume 2 consists of the Particle Listings and contains also 23 reviews that address specific aspects of the data presented in the Listings. The complete Review (both volumes) is published online on the website of the Particle Data Group (pdg.lbl.gov) and in a journal. Volume 1 is available in print as the PDG Book. A Particle Physics Booklet with the Summary Tables and essential tables, figures, and equations from selected review articles is available in print, as a web version optimized for use on phones, and as an Android app. 
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. A bstract We report on a measurement of the $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + to D 0 production ratio in peripheral PbPb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV with the LHCb detector in the forward rapidity region 2 < y < 4 . 5. The $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + ( D 0 ) hadrons are reconstructed via the decay channel $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + → pK − π + ( D 0 → K − π + ) for 2 < p T < 8 GeV/ c and in the centrality range of about 65–90%. The results show no significant dependence on p T , y or the mean number of participating nucleons. They are also consistent with similar measurements obtained by the LHCb collaboration in pPb and Pbp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV. The data agree well with predictions from PYTHIA in pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5 TeV but are in tension with predictions of the Statistical Hadronization model. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  8. A bstract A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays B 0 → K *0 μ ± e ∓ and $$ {B}_s^0 $$ B s 0 → ϕμ ± e ∓ is presented, using proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb − 1 . No significant signals are observed and upper limits of $$ {\displaystyle \begin{array}{c}\mathcal{B}\left({B}^0\to {K}^{\ast 0}{\mu}^{+}{e}^{-}\right)<5.7\times {10}^{-9}\left(6.9\times {10}^{-9}\right),\\ {}\mathcal{B}\left({B}^0\to {K}^{\ast 0}{\mu}^{-}{e}^{+}\right)<6.8\times {10}^{-9}\left(7.9\times {10}^{-9}\right),\\ {}\mathcal{B}\left({B}^0\to {K}^{\ast 0}{\mu}^{\pm }{e}^{\mp}\right)<10.1\times {10}^{-9}\left(11.7\times {10}^{-9}\right),\\ {}\mathcal{B}\left({B}_s^0\to \phi {\mu}^{\pm }{e}^{\mp}\right)<16.0\times {10}^{-9}\left(19.8\times {10}^{-9}\right)\end{array}} $$ B B 0 → K ∗ 0 μ + e − < 5.7 × 10 − 9 6.9 × 10 − 9 , B B 0 → K ∗ 0 μ − e + < 6.8 × 10 − 9 7.9 × 10 − 9 , B B 0 → K ∗ 0 μ ± e ∓ < 10.1 × 10 − 9 11.7 × 10 − 9 , B B s 0 → ϕ μ ± e ∓ < 16.0 × 10 − 9 19.8 × 10 − 9 are set at 90% (95%) confidence level. These results constitute the world’s most stringent limits to date, with the limit on the decay $$ {B}_s^0 $$ B s 0 → ϕμ ± e ∓ the first being set. In addition, limits are reported for scalar and left-handed lepton-flavour violating New Physics scenarios. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  9. A bstract A first search for the lepton-flavour violating decays B 0 → K *0 τ ± μ ∓ is presented. The analysis is performed using a sample of proton-proton collision data, collected with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV between 2011 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb − 1 . No significant signal is observed, and upper limits on the branching fractions are determined to be $$ \mathcal{B}\left({B}^0\to {K}^{\ast 0}{\tau}^{+}{\mu}^{-}\right)<1.0(1.2)\times {10}^{-5} $$ B B 0 → K ∗ 0 τ + μ − < 1.0 1.2 × 10 − 5 and $$ \mathcal{B}\left({B}^0\to {K}^{\ast 0}{\tau}^{-}{\mu}^{+}\right)<8.2(9.8)\times {10}^{-6} $$ B B 0 → K ∗ 0 τ − μ + < 8.2 9.8 × 10 − 6 at the 90% (95%) confidence level. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  10. A bstract An amplitude analysis of the D + → π − π + π + decay is performed with a sample corresponding to 1.5 fb − 1 of integrated luminosity of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 8 TeV collected by the LHCb detector in 2012. The sample contains approximately six hundred thousand candidates with a signal purity of 95%. The resonant structure is studied through a fit to the Dalitz plot where the π − π + S-wave amplitude is extracted as a function of π − π + mass, and spin-1 and spin-2 resonances are included coherently through an isobar model. The S-wave component is found to be dominant, followed by the ρ (770) 0 π + and f 2 (1270) π + components. A small contribution from the ω (782) → π − π + decay is seen for the first time in the D + → π − π + π + decay. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024