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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Three-body nuclear forces play an important role in the structure of nuclei and hypernuclei and are also incorporated in models to describe the dynamics of dense baryonic matter, such as in neutron stars. So far, only indirect measurements anchored to the binding energies of nuclei can be used to constrain the three-nucleon force, and if hyperons are considered, the scarce data on hypernuclei impose only weak constraints on the three-body forces. In this work, we present the first direct measurement of the p–p–p and p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ systems in terms of three-particle correlation functions carried out for pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13 TeV. Three-particle cumulants are extracted from the correlation functions by applying the Kubo formalism, where the three-particle interaction contribution to these correlations can be isolated after subtracting the known two-body interaction terms. A negative cumulant is found for the p–p–p system, hinting to the presence of a residual three-body effect while for p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ the cumulant is consistent with zero. This measurement demonstrates the accessibility of three-baryon correlations at the LHC. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract The transverse-momentum $$(p_{\textrm{T}})$$ ( p T ) spectra of K $$^{*}(892)^{0}~$$ ∗ ( 892 ) 0 and $$\mathrm {\phi (1020)}~$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) measured with the ALICE detector up to $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T  = 16 GeV/ c in the rapidity range $$-1.2< y < 0.3,$$ - 1.2 < y < 0.3 , in p–Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon collision $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} = 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV are presented as a function of charged particle multiplicity and rapidity. The measured $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T distributions show a dependence on both multiplicity and rapidity at low $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T whereas no significant dependence is observed at high $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T . A rapidity dependence is observed in the $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T -integrated yield (d N /d y ), whereas the mean transverse momentum $$\left( \langle p_{\textrm{T}} \rangle \right) $$ ⟨ p T ⟩ shows a flat behavior as a function of rapidity. The rapidity asymmetry ( $$Y_{\textrm{asym}}$$ Y asym ) at low $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T (< 5 GeV/ c ) is more significant for higher multiplicity classes. At high $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T , no significant rapidity asymmetry is observed in any of the multiplicity classes. Both K $$^{*}(892)^{0}~$$ ∗ ( 892 ) 0 and $$\mathrm {\phi (1020)}~$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) show similar $$Y_{\textrm{asym}}$$ Y asym . The nuclear modification factor $$(Q_{\textrm{CP}})$$ ( Q CP ) as a function of $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T shows a Cronin-like enhancement at intermediate $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T , which is more prominent at higher rapidities (Pb-going direction) and in higher multiplicity classes. At high $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T (> 5 GeV/ $$c$$ c ), the $$Q_{\textrm{CP}}$$ Q CP values are greater than unity and no significant rapidity dependence is observed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. A bstract The measurement of the production of charm jets, identified by the presence of a D 0 meson in the jet constituents, is presented in proton–proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5.02 and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The D 0 mesons were reconstructed from their hadronic decay D 0 → K − π + and the respective charge conjugate. Jets were reconstructed from D 0 -meson candidates and charged particles using the anti- k T algorithm, in the jet transverse momentum range 5 < p T , chjet < 50 GeV/ c , pseudorapidity | η jet | < 0 . 9 − R , and with the jet resolution parameters R = 0 . 2 , 0 . 4 , 0 . 6. The distribution of the jet momentum fraction carried by a D 0 meson along the jet axis $$ \left({z}_{\Big\Vert}^{\textrm{ch}}\right) $$ z ‖ ch was measured in the range 0 . 4 < $$ {z}_{\Big\Vert}^{\textrm{ch}} $$ z ‖ ch < 1 . 0 in four ranges of the jet transverse momentum. Comparisons of results for different collision energies and jet resolution parameters are also presented. The measurements are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators based on leading-order and next-to-leading-order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. A generally good description of the main features of the data is obtained in spite of a few discrepancies at low p T , chjet . Measurements were also done for R = 0 . 3 at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5 . 02 and are shown along with their comparisons to theoretical predictions in an appendix to this paper. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. A bstract We report about the properties of the underlying event measured with ALICE at the LHC in pp and p–Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV. The event activity, quantified by charged-particle number and summed- p T densities, is measured as a function of the leading-particle transverse momentum $$ \left({p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\right) $$ p T trig . These quantities are studied in three azimuthal-angle regions relative to the leading particle in the event: toward, away, and transverse. Results are presented for three different p T thresholds (0.15, 0.5 and 1 GeV/ c ) at mid-pseudorapidity (| η | < 0 . 8). The event activity in the transverse region, which is the most sensitive to the underlying event, exhibits similar behaviour in both pp and p–Pb collisions, namely, a steep increase with $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig for low $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig , followed by a saturation at $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\approx 5 $$ p T trig ≈ 5 GeV/ c . The results from pp collisions are compared with existing measurements at other centre-of-mass energies. The quantities in the toward and away regions are also analyzed after the subtraction of the contribution measured in the transverse region. The remaining jet-like particle densities are consistent in pp and p–Pb collisions for $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}>10 $$ p T trig > 10 GeV/ c , whereas for lower $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig values the event activity is slightly higher in p–Pb than in pp collisions. The measurements are compared with predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC Monte Carlo event generators. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Abstract This article presents measurements of the groomed jet radius and momentum splitting fraction in pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5 . 02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Inclusive charged-particle jets are reconstructed at midrapidity using the anti- k T algorithm for transverse momentum $$ 60<{p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{ch}\;\textrm{jet}}<80 $$ 60 < p T ch jet < 80 GeV/ c . We report results using two different grooming algorithms: soft drop and, for the first time, dynamical grooming. For each grooming algorithm, a variety of grooming settings are used in order to explore the impact of collinear radiation on these jet substructure observables. These results are compared to perturbative calculations that include resummation of large logarithms at all orders in the strong coupling constant. We find good agreement of the theoretical predictions with the data for all grooming settings considered. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  8. A bstract The first measurements of elliptic flow of π ± , K ± , $$ \textrm{p}+\overline{\textrm{p}} $$ p + p ¯ , $$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$ K S 0 , $$ \Lambda +\overline{\Lambda} $$ Λ + Λ ¯ , ϕ , $$ {\Xi}^{-}+{\overline{\Xi}}^{+} $$ Ξ − + Ξ ¯ + , and $$ {\varOmega}^{-}+{\overline{\varOmega}}^{+} $$ Ω − + Ω ¯ + using multiparticle cumulants in Pb–Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV are resented. Results obtained with two- ( v 2 {2}) and four-particle cumulants ( v 2 {4}) are shown as a function of transverse momentum, p T , for various collision centrality intervals. Combining the data for both v 2 {2} and v 2 {4} also allows us to report the first measurements of the mean elliptic flow, elliptic flow fluctuations, and relative elliptic flow fluctuations for various hadron species. These observables probe the event-by-event eccentricity fluctuations in the initial state and the contributions from the dynamic evolution of the expanding quark–gluon plasma. The characteristic features observed in previous p T -differential anisotropic flow measurements for identified hadrons with two-particle correlations, namely the mass ordering at low p T and the approximate scaling with the number of constituent quarks at intermediate p T , are similarly present in the four-particle correlations and the combinations of v 2 {2} and v 2 {4}. In addition, a particle species dependence of flow fluctuations is observed that could indicate a significant contribution from final state hadronic interactions. The comparison between experimental measurements and CoLBT model calculations, which combine the various physics processes of hydrodynamics, quark coalescence, and jet fragmentation, illustrates their importance over a wide p T range. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  9. A bstract The first measurement of the e + e − pair production at low lepton pair transverse momentum ( p T , ee ) and low invariant mass ( m ee ) in non-central Pb–Pb collisions at $$ {\sqrt{s}}_{\textrm{NN}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV at the LHC is presented. The dielectron production is studied with the ALICE detector at midrapidity ( |η e | < 0 . 8) as a function of invariant mass (0.4 ≤ m ee < 2 . 7 GeV/ c 2 ) in the 50–70% and 70–90% centrality classes for p T , ee < 0.1 GeV/ c , and as a function of p T , ee in three m ee intervals in the most peripheral Pb–Pb collisions. Below a p T , ee of 0.1 GeV/ c , a clear excess of e + e − pairs is found compared to the expectations from known hadronic sources and predictions of thermal radiation from the medium. The m ee excess spectra are reproduced, within uncertainties, by different predictions of the photon–photon production of dielectrons, where the photons originate from the extremely strong electromagnetic fields generated by the highly Lorentz-contracted Pb nuclei. Lowest-order quantum electrodynamic (QED) calculations, as well as a model that takes into account the impact-parameter dependence of the average transverse momentum of the photons, also provide a good description of the p T , ee spectra. The measured $$ \sqrt{\left\langle {p}_{\textrm{T},\textrm{ee}}^2\right\rangle } $$ p T , ee 2 of the excess p T , ee spectrum in peripheral Pb–Pb collisions is found to be comparable to the values observed previously at RHIC in a similar phase-space region. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  10. A bstract Production of inclusive charmonia in pp collisions at center-of-mass energy of $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV and p–Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 8 . 16 TeV is studied as a function of charged-particle pseudorapidity density with ALICE. Ground and excited charmonium states ( J/ψ , ψ (2S)) are measured from their dimuon decays in the interval of rapidity in the center-of-mass frame 2 . 5 < y cms < 4 . 0 for pp collisions, and 2 . 03 < y cms < 3 . 53 and −4 . 46 < y cms < −2 . 96 for p–Pb collisions. The charged-particle pseudorapidity density is measured around midrapidity (| η | < 1 . 0). In pp collisions, the measured charged-particle multiplicity extends to about six times the average value, while in p-Pb collisions at forward (backward) rapidity a multiplicity corresponding to about three (four) times the average is reached. The ψ (2S) yield increases with the charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The ratio of ψ (2S) over J/ψ yield does not show a significant multiplicity dependence in either colliding system, suggesting a similar behavior of J/ψ and ψ (2S) yields with respect to charged-particle pseudorapidity density. Results for the ψ (2S) yield and its ratio with respect to J/ψ agree with available model calculations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024