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  1. Abstract Nanosensors have proven to be powerful tools to monitor single cells, achieving spatiotemporal precision even at molecular level. However, there has not been way of extending this approach to statistically relevant numbers of living cells. Herein, we design and fabricate nanosensor array in microfluidics that addresses this limitation, creating a Nanosensor Chemical Cytometry (NCC). nIR fluorescent carbon nanotube array is integrated along microfluidic channel through which flowing cells is guided. We can utilize the flowing cell itself as highly informative Gaussian lenses projecting nIR profiles and extract rich information. This unique biophotonic waveguide allows for quantified cross-correlation of biomolecular information with various physical properties and creates label-free chemical cytometer for cellular heterogeneity measurement. As an example, the NCC can profile the immune heterogeneities of human monocyte populations at attomolar sensitivity in completely non-destructive and real-time manner with rate of ~600 cells/hr, highest range demonstrated to date for state-of-the-art chemical cytometry.
  2. Abstract

    Low-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) materials can harness tightly confined polaritonic waves to deliver unique advantages for nanophotonic biosensing. The reduced dimensionality of vdW materials, as in the case of two-dimensional graphene, can greatly enhance plasmonic field confinement, boosting sensitivity and efficiency compared to conventional nanophotonic devices that rely on surface plasmon resonance in metallic films. Furthermore, the reduction of dielectric screening in vdW materials enables electrostatic tunability of different polariton modes, including plasmons, excitons, and phonons. One-dimensional vdW materials, particularly single-walled carbon nanotubes, possess unique form factors with confined excitons to enable single-molecule detection as well as in vivo biosensing. We discuss basic sensing principles based on vdW materials, followed by technological challenges such as surface chemistry, integration, and toxicity. Finally, we highlight progress in harnessing vdW materials to demonstrate new sensing functionalities that are difficult to perform with conventional metal/dielectric sensors.