skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Street, W. Nick"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    In electronic health records (EHRs) data analysis, nonparametric regression and classification using International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes as covariates remain understudied. Automated methods have been developed over the years for predicting biomedical responses using EHRs, but relatively less attention has been paid to developing patient similarity measures that use ICD codes and chronic conditions, where a chronic condition is defined as a set of ICD codes. We address this problem by first developing a string kernel function for measuring the similarity between a pair of primary chronic conditions, represented as subsets of ICD codes. Second, we extend this similarity measure to a family of covariance functions on subsets of chronic conditions. This family is used in developing Gaussian process (GP) priors for Bayesian nonparametric regression and classification using diagnoses and other demographic information as covariates. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are used for posterior inference and predictions. The proposed methods are tuning free, so they are ideal for automated prediction of biomedical responses depending on chronic conditions. We evaluate the practical performance of our method on EHR data collected from 1660 patients at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) with six different primary cancer sites. Our method provides better sensitivity and specificity than its competitors in classifying different primary cancer sites and estimates the marginal associations between chronic conditions and primary cancer sites.

     
    more » « less
  2. Urban dispersal events occur when an unexpectedly large number of people leave an area in a relatively short period of time. It is beneficial for the city authorities, such as law enforcement and city management, to have an advance knowledge of such events, as it can help them mitigate the safety risks and handle important challenges such as managing traffic, and so forth. Predicting dispersal events is also beneficial to Taxi drivers and/or ride-sharing services, as it will help them respond to an unexpected demand and gain competitive advantage. Large urban datasets such as detailed trip records and point of interest ( POI ) data make such predictions achievable. The related literature mainly focused on taxi demand prediction. The pattern of the demand was assumed to be repetitive and proposed methods aimed at capturing those patterns. However, dispersal events are, by definition, violations of those patterns and are, understandably, missed by the methods in the literature. We proposed a different approach in our prior work [32]. We showed that dispersal events can be predicted by learning the complex patterns of arrival and other features that precede them in time. We proposed a survival analysis formulation of this problem and proposed a two-stage framework (DILSA), where a deep learning model predicted the survival function at each point in time in the future. We used that prediction to determine the time of the dispersal event in the future, or its non-occurrence. However, DILSA is subject to a few limitations. First, based on evidence from the data, mobility patterns can vary through time at a given location. DILSA does not distinguish between different mobility patterns through time. Second, mobility patterns are also different for different locations. DILSA does not have the capability to directly distinguish between different locations based on their mobility patterns. In this article, we address these limitations by proposing a method to capture the interaction between POIs and mobility patterns and we create vector representations of locations based on their mobility patterns. We call our new method DILSA+. We conduct extensive case studies and experiments on the NYC Yellow taxi dataset from 2014 to 2016. Results show that DILSA+ can predict events in the next 5 hours with an F1-score of 0.66. It is significantly better than DILSA and the state-of-the-art deep learning approaches for taxi demand prediction. 
    more » « less
  3. Urban dispersal events are processes where an unusually large number of people leave the same area in a short period. Early prediction of dispersal events is important in mitigating congestion and safety risks and making better dispatching decisions for taxi and ride-sharing fleets. Existing work mostly focuses on predicting taxi demand in the near future by learning patterns from historical data. However, they fail in case of abnormality because dispersal events with abnormally high demand are non-repetitive and violate common assumptions such as smoothness in demand change over time. Instead, in this paper we argue that dispersal events follow a complex pattern of trips and other related features in the past, which can be used to predict such events. Therefore, we formulate the dispersal event prediction problem as a survival analysis problem. We propose a two-stage framework (DILSA), where a deep learning model combined with survival analysis is developed to predict the probability of a dispersal event and its demand volume. We conduct extensive case studies and experiments on the NYC Yellow taxi dataset from 2014-2016. Results show that DILSA can predict events in the next 5 hours with F1-score of 0:7 and with average time error of 18 minutes. It is orders of magnitude better than the state-of-the-art deep learning approaches for taxi demand prediction. 
    more » « less