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  1. Abstract This study addresses the question of how and where arc magmas obtain their chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Wooley Creek batholith and Slinkard pluton are a tilted, mid- to upper-crustal part of a vertically extensive, late-Jurassic, arc-related magmatic system in the Klamath Mountains, northern California. The main stage of the system is divided into an older lower zone (c. 159 Ma) emplaced as multiple sheet-like bodies, a younger upper zone (c. 158–156 Ma), which is gradationally zoned upward from mafic tonalite to granite, and a complex central zone, which represents the transition between the lower and upper zones. Xenoliths are common and locally abundant in the lower and central zones and preserve a ghost stratigraphy of the three host terranes. Bulk-rock Nd isotope data along with ages and Hf and oxygen isotope data on zircons were used to assess the location and timing of differentiation and assimilation. Xenoliths display a wide range of εNd (whole-rock) and εHf (zircon), ranges that correlate with rocks in the host terranes. Among individual pluton samples, zircon Hf and oxygen isotope data display ranges too large to represent uniform magma compositions, and very few data are consistent with uncontaminated mantle-derived magma. In addition, zoning of Zr and Hf in augite and hornblende indicates that zircon crystallized at temperatures near or below 800 °C; these temperatures are lower than emplacement temperatures. Therefore, the diversity of zircon isotope compositions reflects in situ crystallization from heterogeneous magmas. On the basis of these and published data, the system is interpreted to reflect initial MASH-zone differentiation, which resulted in elevated δ18O and lowered εHf in the magmas prior to zircon crystallization. Further differentiation, and particularly assimilation–fractional crystallization, occurred at the level of emplacement on a piecemeal (local) basis as individual magma batches interacted with partial melts from host-rock xenoliths. This piecemeal assimilation was accompanied by zircon crystallization, resulting in the heterogeneous isotopic signatures. Magmatism ended with late-stage emplacement of isotopically evolved granitic magmas (c. 156 Ma) whose compositions primarily reflect reworking of the deep-crustal MASH environment. 
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  2. Abstract Combined Hf-O isotopic analyses of zircons from tuffs and lavas within the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) silicic large igneous province are probes of petrogenetic processes in the lower and upper crust. Existing petrogenetic and tectonomagmatic models diverge, having either emphasized significant crustal reworking of hydrated continental lithosphere in an arc above the retreating Farallon slab or significant input of juvenile mantle melts through a slab window into an actively stretching continental lithosphere. New isotopic data are remarkably uniform within and between erupted units across the spatial and temporal extent of the SMO, consistent with homogeneous melt production and evolution. Isotopic values are consistent with enriched mantle magmas (80%) that assimilated Proterozoic paragneisses (~20%) from the lower crust. δ18Ozircon values are consistent with fractionation of mafic magma and not with assimilation of hydrothermally altered upper crust, suggesting that the silicic magmas evolved at depth. Isotopic data agree with previous interpretations where voluminous juvenile melts entered the lithosphere during the transition from a continental arc experiencing slab rollback (Late Eocene) to the arrival of a subducting slab window (Oligocene and Early Miocene) and failure of the upper plate leading to the opening of the Gulf of California (Late Miocene). An anomalously large heat flux and extension of the upper plate allow for the sustained fractionation of the voluminous SMO magmas and assimilation of the lower crust. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The 119 Ma Dinkey Dome pluton in the central Sierra Nevada Batholith is a peraluminous granite and contains magmatic garnet and zircon that are complexly zoned with respect to oxygen isotope ratios. Intracrystalline SIMS analysis tests the relative importance of magmatic differentiation processes vs. partial melting of metasedimentary rocks. Whereas δ18O values of bulk zircon concentrates are uniform across the entire pluton (7.7‰ VSMOW), zircon crystals are zoned in δ18O by up to 1.8‰, and when compared to late garnet, show evidence of changing magma chemistry during multiple interactions of the magma with wall rock during crustal transit. The evolution from an early high-δ18O magma [δ18O(WR) = 9.8‰] toward lower values is shown by high-δ18O zircon cores (7.8‰) and lower δ 18O rims (6.8‰). Garnets from the northwest side of the pluton show a final increase in δ18O with rims reaching 8.1‰. In situ REE measurements show zircon is magmatic and grew before garnets. Additionally, δ18O in garnets from the western side of the pluton are consistently higher (avg = 7.3‰) relative to the west (avg = 5.9‰). These δ18O variations in zircon and garnet record different stages of assimilation and fractional crystallization whereby an initially high-δ18O magma partially melted low-δ18O wallrock and was subsequently contaminated near the current level of emplacement by higher δ18O melts. Collectively, the comparison of δ18O zoning in garnet and zircon shows how a peraluminous pluton can be constructed from multiple batches of variably contaminated melts, especially in early stages of arc magmatism where magmas encounter significant heterogeneity of wall-rock assemblages. Collectively, peraluminous magmas in the Sierran arc are limited to small <100 km2 plutons that are intimately associated with metasedimentary wall rocks and often surrounded by later and larger metaluminous tonalite and granodiorite plutons. The general associations suggest that early-stage arc magmas sample crustal heterogeneities in small melt batches, but that with progressive invigoration of the arc, such compositions are more effectively blended with mantle melts in source regions. Thus, peraluminous magmas provide important details of the nascent Sierran arc and pre-batholithic crustal structure. 
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