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  1. Abstract

    Observations of the young solar wind by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission reveal the existence of intense plasma wave bursts with frequencies between 0.05 and 0.20fce(tens of hertz up to ∼300 Hz) in the spacecraft frame. The wave bursts are often collocated with inhomogeneities in the solar wind magnetic field, such as local dips in magnitude or sudden directional changes. The observed waves are identified as electromagnetic whistler waves that propagate either sunward, anti-sunward, or in counter-propagating configurations during different burst events. Being generated in the solar wind flow, the waves experience significant Doppler downshift and upshift of wave frequency in the spacecraft frame for sunward and anti-sunward waves, respectively. Their peak amplitudes can be larger than 2 nT, where such values represent up to 10% of the background magnetic field during the interval of study. The amplitude is maximum for propagation parallel to the background magnetic field. We (i) evaluate the properties of these waves by reconstructing their parameters in the plasma frame, (ii) estimate the effective length of the PSP electric field antennas at whistler frequencies, and (iii) discuss the generation mechanism of these waves.

  2. Abstract

    We present the discovery of an as yet nonrepeating fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 20210117A, with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), as a part of the Commensal Real-time ASKAP Fast Transients Survey. The subarcsecond localization of the burst led to the identification of its host galaxy atz= 0.214(1). This redshift is much lower than what would be expected for a source dispersion measure (DM) of 729 pc cm−3, given typical contributions from the intergalactic medium and the host galaxy. Optical observations reveal the host to be a dwarf galaxy with little ongoing star formation—very different to the dwarf host galaxies of the known repeating FRBs 20121102A and 20190520B. We find an excess DM contribution from the host and attribute it to the FRB’s local environment. We do not find any radio emission from the FRB site or host galaxy. The low magnetized environment and the lack of a persistent radio source indicate that the FRB source is older than those found in other dwarf host galaxies, establishing the diversity of FRB sources in dwarf galaxy environments. We find our observations to be fully consistent with the “hypernebula” model, where the FRB is powered by an accretion jetmore »from a hyperaccreting black hole. Finally, our high time resolution analysis reveals burst characteristics similar to those seen in repeating FRBs. We encourage follow-up observations of FRB 20210117A to establish any repeating nature.

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  3. Abstract In this Letter, we report observations of magnetic switchback (SB) features near 1 au using data from the Wind spacecraft. These features appear to be strikingly similar to the ones observed by the Parker Solar Probe mission closer to the Sun: namely, one-sided spikes (or enhancements) in the solar-wind bulk speed V that correlate/anticorrelate with the spikes seen in the radial-field component B R . In the solar-wind streams that we analyzed, these specific SB features near 1 au are associated with large-amplitude Alfvénic oscillations that propagate outward from the Sun along a local background (prevalent) magnetic field B 0 that is nearly radial. We also show that, when B 0 is nearly perpendicular to the radial direction, the large-amplitude Alfvénic oscillations display variations in V that are two sided (i.e., V alternately increases and decreases depending on the vector Δ B = B − B 0 ). As a consequence, SBs may not always appear as one-sided spikes in V , especially at larger heliocentric distances where the local background field statistically departs from the radial direction. We suggest that SBs can be well described by large-amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations if the field rotation is computed with respect tomore »a well-determined local background field that, in some cases, may deviate from the large-scale Parker field.« less
  4. Abstract

    We present the largest and most homogeneous collection of near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): 339 spectra of 98 individual SNe obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project-II. These spectra, obtained with the FIRE spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, have a spectral range of 0.8–2.5μm. Using this sample, we explore the NIR spectral diversity of SNe Ia and construct a template of spectral time series as a function of the light-curve-shape parameter, color stretchsBV. Principal component analysis is applied to characterize the diversity of the spectral features and reduce data dimensionality to a smaller subspace. Gaussian process regression is then used to model the subspace dependence on phase and light-curve shape and the associated uncertainty. Our template is able to predict spectral variations that are correlated withsBV, such as the hallmark NIR features: Mgiiat early times and theH-band break after peak. Using this template reduces the systematic uncertainties inK-corrections by ∼90% compared to those from the Hsiao template. These uncertainties, defined as the meanK-correction differences computed with the color-matched template and observed spectra, are on the level of 4 × 10−4mag on average. This template can serve as the baseline spectral energymore »distribution for light-curve fitters and can identify peculiar spectral features that might point to compelling physics. The results presented here will substantially improve future SN Ia cosmological experiments, for both nearby and distant samples.

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  5. Abstract We present high-cadence optical and ultraviolet light curves of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN) 2021aefx, which shows an early bump during the first two days of observation. This bump may be a signature of interaction between the exploding white dwarf and a nondegenerate binary companion, or it may be intrinsic to the white dwarf explosion mechanism. In the case of the former, the short duration of the bump implies a relatively compact main-sequence companion star, although this conclusion is viewing-angle dependent. Our best-fit companion-shocking and double-detonation models both overpredict the UV luminosity during the bump, and existing nickel-shell models do not match the strength and timescale of the bump. We also present nebular spectra of SN 2021aefx, which do not show the hydrogen or helium emission expected from a nondegenerate companion, as well as a radio nondetection that rules out all symbiotic progenitor systems and most accretion disk winds. Our analysis places strong but conflicting constraints on the progenitor of SN 2021aefx; no current model can explain all of our observations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  6. Abstract

    SN 2018aoz is a Type Ia SN with aB-band plateau and excess emission in infant-phase light curves ≲1 day after the first light, evidencing an over-density of surface iron-peak elements as shown in our previous study. Here, we advance the constraints on the nature and origin of SN 2018aoz based on its evolution until the nebular phase. Near-peak spectroscopic features show that the SN is intermediate between two subtypes of normal Type Ia: core normal and broad line. The excess emission may be attributable to the radioactive decay of surface iron-peak elements as well as the interaction of ejecta with either the binary companion or a small torus of circumstellar material. Nebular-phase limits on Hαand Heifavor a white dwarf companion, consistent with the small companion size constrained by the low early SN luminosity, while the absence of [Oi] and Heidisfavors a violent merger of the progenitor. Of the two main explosion mechanisms proposed to explain the distribution of surface iron-peak elements in SN 2018aoz, the asymmetric Chandrasekhar-mass explosion is less consistent with the progenitor constraints and the observed blueshifts of nebular-phase [Feii] and [Niii]. The helium-shell double-detonation explosion is compatible with the observed lack of C spectral features, butmore »current 1D models are incompatible with the infant-phase excess emission,BmaxVmaxcolor, and weak strength of nebular-phase [Caii]. Although the explosion processes of SN 2018aoz still need to be more precisely understood, the same processes could produce a significant fraction of Type Ia SNe that appear to be normal after ∼1 day.

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  7. Abstract This letter exploits the radial alignment between the Parker Solar Probe and BepiColombo in late 2022 February, when both spacecraft were within Mercury’s orbit. This allows the study of the turbulent evolution, namely, the change in spectral and intermittency properties, of the same plasma parcel during its expansion from 0.11 to 0.33 au, a still unexplored region. The observational analysis of the solar wind turbulent features at the two different evolution stages is complemented by a theoretical description based on the turbulence transport model equations for nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. The results provide strong evidence that the solar wind turbulence already undergoes significant evolution at distances less than 0.3 au from the Sun, which can be satisfactorily explained as due to evolving slab fluctuations. This work represents a step forward in understanding the processes that control the transition from weak to strong turbulence in the solar wind and in properly modeling the heliosphere.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  8. Context. Periodicities have frequently been reported across many wavelengths in the solar corona. Correlated periods of ~5 min, comparable to solar p -modes, are suggestive of coupling between the photosphere and the corona. Aims. Our study investigates whether there are correlations in the periodic behavior of Type III radio bursts which are indicative of nonthermal electron acceleration processes, and coronal extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission used to assess heating and cooling in an active region when there are no large flares. Methods. We used coordinated observations of Type III radio bursts from the FIELDS instrument on Parker Solar Probe (PSP), of EUV emissions by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and white light observations by SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Image (HMI), and of solar flare X-rays by Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on April 12, 2019. Several methods for assessing periodicities are utilized and compared to validate periods obtained. Results. Periodicities of ~5 min in the EUV in several areas of an active region are well correlated with the repetition rate of the Type III radio bursts observed on both PSP and Wind. Detrended 211 and 171 Å light curves show periodic profiles in multiple locations, with 171more »Å peaks sometimes lagging those seen in 211 Å. This is suggestive of impulsive events that result in heating and then cooling in the lower corona. NuSTAR X-rays provide evidence for at least one microflare during the interval of Type III bursts, but there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the X-rays and the Type III bursts. Our study provides evidence for periodic acceleration of nonthermal electrons (required to generate Type III radio bursts) when there were no observable flares either in the X-ray data or the EUV. The acceleration process, therefore, must be associated with small impulsive events, perhaps nanoflares.« less
  9. Abstract We present a high-resolution analysis of the host galaxy of fast radio burst (FRB) 190608, an SB(r)c galaxy at z = 0.11778 (hereafter HG 190608), to dissect its local environment and its contributions to the FRB properties. Our Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and visible light image reveals that the subarcsecond localization of FRB 190608 is coincident with a knot of star formation (Σ SFR = 1.5 × 10 −2 M ⊙ yr −1 kpc −2 ) in the northwest spiral arm of HG 190608. Using H β emission present in our Keck Cosmic Web Imager integral field spectrum of the galaxy with a surface brightness of μ H β = ( 3.36 ± 0.21 ) × 10 − 17 erg s − 1 cm − 2 arcsec − 2 , we infer an extinction-corrected H α surface brightness and compute a dispersion measure (DM) from the interstellar medium of HG 190608 of DM Host,ISM = 94 ± 38 pc cm −3 . The galaxy rotates with a circular velocity v circ = 141 ± 8 km s −1 at an inclination i gas = 37° ± 3°, giving a dynamical mass M halo dyn ≈more »10 11.96 ± 0.08 M ⊙ . This implies a halo contribution to the DM of DM Host,Halo = 55 ± 25 pc cm −3 subject to assumptions on the density profile and fraction of baryons retained. From the galaxy rotation curve, we infer a bar-induced pattern speed of Ω p = 34 ± 6 km s −1 kpc −1 using linear resonance theory. We then calculate the maximum time since star formation for a progenitor using the furthest distance to the arm’s leading edge within the localization, and find t enc = 21 − 6 + 25 Myr. Unlike previous high-resolution studies of FRB environments, we find no evidence of disturbed morphology, emission, or kinematics for FRB 190608.« less