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  1. ABSTRACT We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel far-infrared (far-IR) observations of the edge-on disc galaxy NGC 3079. The point spread function-cleaned Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) images at 100 and 160 µm display a 25 × 25 kpc2 X-shape structure centred on the nucleus that is similar in extent and orientation to that seen in H α, X-rays, and the far-ultraviolet. One of the dusty filaments making up this structure is detected in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver 250 µm map out to ∼25 kpc from the nucleus. The match between the far-IR filaments and those detected at other wavelengths suggestsmore »that the dusty material has been lifted out of the disc by the same large-scale galactic wind that has produced the other structures in this object. A closer look at the central 10 × 10 kpc2 region provides additional support for this scenario. The dust temperatures traced by the 100–160 µm flux ratios in this region are enhanced within a biconical region centred on the active galactic nucleus, aligned along the minor axis of the galaxy, and coincident with the well-known double-lobed cm-wave radio structure and H α–X-ray nuclear superbubbles. PACS imaging spectroscopy of the inner 6 kpc region reveals broad [C ii] 158 µm emission line profiles and OH 79 µm absorption features along the minor axis of the galaxy with widths well in excess of those expected from beam smearing of the disc rotational motion. This provides compelling evidence that the cool material traced by the [C ii] and OH features directly interacts with the nuclear ionized and relativistic outflows traced by the H α, X-ray, and radio emission.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2022
  2. null (Ed.)
    The angular size of the broad line region (BLR) of the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 3783 has been spatially resolved by recent observations with VLTI/GRAVITY. A reverberation mapping (RM) campaign has also recently obtained high quality light curves and measured the linear size of the BLR in a way that is complementary to the GRAVITY measurement. The size and kinematics of the BLR can be better constrained by a joint analysis that combines both GRAVITY and RM data. This, in turn, allows us to obtain the mass of the supermassive black hole in NGC 3783 with an accuracy thatmore »is about a factor of two better than that inferred from GRAVITY data alone. We derive M BH = 2.54 −0.72 +0.90 × 10 7 M ⊙ . Finally, and perhaps most notably, we are able to measure a geometric distance to NGC 3783 of 39.9 −11.9 +14.5 Mpc. We are able to test the robustness of the BLR-based geometric distance with measurements based on the Tully–Fisher relation and other indirect methods. We find the geometric distance is consistent with other methods within their scatter. We explore the potential of BLR-based geometric distances to directly constrain the Hubble constant, H 0 , and identify differential phase uncertainties as the current dominant limitation to the H 0 measurement precision for individual sources.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. Using VLTI/GRAVITY and SINFONI data, we investigate the subparsec gas and dust structure around the nearby type 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosted by NGC 3783. The K -band coverage of GRAVITY uniquely allows simultaneous analysis of the size and kinematics of the broad line region (BLR), the size and structure of the near-infrared(near-IR)-continuum-emitting hot dust, and the size of the coronal line region (CLR). We find the BLR, probed through broad Br γ emission, to be well described by a rotating, thick disc with a radial distribution of clouds peaking in the inner region. In our BLR model, themore »physical mean radius of 16 light-days is nearly twice the ten-day time-lag that would be measured, which closely matches the ten-day time-lag that has been measured by reverberation mapping. We measure a hot dust full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) size of 0.74 mas (0.14 pc) and further reconstruct an image of the hot dust, which reveals a faint (5% of the total flux) offset cloud that we interpret as an accreting or outflowing cloud heated by the central AGN. Finally, we directly measure the FWHM size of the nuclear CLR as traced by the [Ca  VIII ] and narrow Br γ line. We find a FWHM size of 2.2 mas (0.4 pc), fully in line with the expectation of the CLR located between the BLR and narrow line region. Combining all of these measurements together with larger scale near-IR integral field unit and mid-IR interferometry data, we are able to comprehensively map the structure and dynamics of gas and dust from 0.01 to 100 pc.« less
  4. We present new near-infrared VLTI/GRAVITY interferometric spectra that spatially resolve the broad Br γ emission line in the nucleus of the active galaxy IRAS 09149−6206. We use these data to measure the size of the broad line region (BLR) and estimate the mass of the central black hole. Using an improved phase calibration method that reduces the differential phase uncertainty to 0.05° per baseline across the spectrum, we detect a differential phase signal that reaches a maximum of ∼0.5° between the line and continuum. This represents an offset of ∼120  μ as (0.14 pc) between the BLR and the centroidmore »of the hot dust distribution traced by the 2.3 μ m continuum. The offset is well within the dust sublimation region, which matches the measured ∼0.6 mas (0.7 pc) diameter of the continuum. A clear velocity gradient, almost perpendicular to the offset, is traced by the reconstructed photocentres of the spectral channels of the Br γ line. We infer the radius of the BLR to be ∼65  μ as (0.075 pc), which is consistent with the radius–luminosity relation of nearby active galactic nuclei derived based on the time lag of the H β line from reverberation mapping campaigns. Our dynamical modelling indicates the black hole mass is ∼1 × 10 8   M ⊙ , which is a little below, but consistent with, the standard M BH – σ * relation.« less
  5. We present near-infrared interferometric data on the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, obtained with the GRAVITY instrument on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope Interferometer. The extensive baseline coverage from 5 to 60 M λ allowed us to reconstruct a continuum image of the nucleus with an unrivaled 0.2 pc resolution in the K -band. We find a thin ring-like structure of emission with a radius r  = 0.24 ± 0.03 pc, inclination i  = 70 ± 5°, position angle PA = −50 ± 4°, and h / r  <  0.14, which we associate with the dust sublimation region. The observed morphology is inconsistent with the expected signatures ofmore »a geometrically and optically thick torus. Instead, the infrared emission shows a striking resemblance to the 22 GHz maser disc, which suggests they share a common region of origin. The near-infrared spectral energy distribution indicates a bolometric luminosity of (0.4–4.7) × 10 45 erg s −1 , behind a large A K  ≈ 5.5 ( A V  ≈ 90) screen of extinction that also appears to contribute significantly to obscuring the broad line region.« less
  6. We use VLTI/GRAVITY near-infrared interferometry measurements of eight bright type 1 AGN to study the size and structure of hot dust that is heated by the central engine. We partially resolve each source, and report Gaussian full width at half-maximum sizes in the range 0.3−0.8 mas. In all but one object, we find no evidence for significant elongation or asymmetry (closure phases ≲1°). The narrow range of measured angular sizes is expected given the similar optical flux of our targets, and implies an increasing effective physical radius with bolometric luminosity, as found from previous reverberation and interferometry measurements. The measuredmore »sizes for Seyfert galaxies are systematically larger than for the two quasars in our sample when measured relative to the previously reported R  ∼  L 1/2 relationship, which is explained by emission at the sublimation radius. This could be evidence of an evolving near-infrared emission region structure as a function of central luminosity.« less
  7. ABSTRACT

    We report on our combined analysis of HST, VLT/MUSE, VLT/SINFONI, and ALMA observations of the local Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 5728 to investigate in detail the feeding and feedback of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The data sets simultaneously probe the morphology, excitation, and kinematics of the stars, ionized gas, and molecular gas over a large range of spatial scales (10 pc to 10 kpc). NGC 5728 contains a large stellar bar that is driving gas along prominent dust lanes to the inner 1 kpc where the gas settles into a circumnuclear ring. The ring is strongly star forming and contains a substantialmore »population of young stars as indicated by the lowered stellar velocity dispersion and gas excitation consistent with H ii regions. We model the kinematics of the ring using the velocity field of the CO (2–1) emission and stars and find it is consistent with a rotating disc. The outer regions of the disc, where the dust lanes meet the ring, show signatures of inflow at a rate of 1 M$\odot$ yr−1. Inside the ring, we observe three molecular gas components corresponding to the circular rotation of the outer ring, a warped disc, and the nuclear stellar bar. The AGN is driving an ionized gas outflow that reaches a radius of 250 pc with a mass outflow rate of 0.08 M$\odot$ yr−1 consistent with its luminosity and scaling relations from previous studies. While we observe distinct holes in CO emission which could be signs of molecular gas removal, we find that largely the AGN is not disrupting the structure of the circumnuclear region.

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