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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Recent years have witnessed increasing concerns towards unfair decisions made by machine learning algorithms. To improve fairness in model decisions, various fairness notions have been proposed and many fairness-aware methods are developed. However, most of existing definitions and methods focus only on single-label classification. Fairness for multi-label classification, where each instance is associated with more than one labels, is still yet to establish. To fill this gap, we study fairness-aware multi-label classification in this paper. We start by extending Demographic Parity (DP) and Equalized Opportunity (EOp), two popular fairness notions, to multi-label classification scenarios. Through a systematic study, we show that on multi-label data, because of unevenly distributed labels, EOp usually fails to construct a reliable estimate on labels with few instances. We then propose a new framework named Similarity s-induced Fairness (sγ -SimFair). This new framework utilizes data that have similar labels when estimating fairness on a particular label group for better stability, and can unify DP and EOp. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on real-world datasets together demonstrate the advantage of sγ -SimFair over existing methods on multi-label classification tasks.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2024
  3. Wide-area soil moisture sensing is a key element for smart irrigation systems. However, existing soil moisture sensing methods usually fail to achieve both satisfactory mobility and high moisture estimation accuracy. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a novel soil moisture sensing system, named as SoilId, that combines a UAV and a COTS IR-UWB radar for wide-area soil moisture sensing without the need of burying any battery-powered in-ground device. Specifically, we design a series of novel methods to help SoilId extract soil moisture related features from the received radar signals, and automatically detect and discard the data contaminated by the UAV's uncontrollable motion and the multipath interference. Furthermore, we leverage the powerful representation ability of deep neural networks and carefully design a neural network model to accurately map the extracted radar signal features to soil moisture estimations. We have extensively evaluated SoilId against a variety of real-world factors, including the UAV's uncontrollable motion, the multipath interference, soil surface coverages, and many others. Specifically, the experimental results carried out by our UAV-based system validate that SoilId can push the accuracy limits of RF-based soil moisture sensing techniques to a 50% quantile MAE of 0.23%.

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  4. With the popularity of smartphones, large-scale road sensing data is being collected to perform traffic prediction, which is an important task in modern society. Due to the nature of the roving sensors on smartphones, the collected traffic data which is in the form of multivariate time series, is often temporally sparse and unevenly distributed across regions. Moreover, different regions can have different traffic patterns, which makes it challenging to adapt models learned from regions with sufficient training data to target regions. Given that many regions may have very sparse data, it is also impossible to build individual models for each region separately. In this paper, we propose a meta-learning based framework named MetaTP to overcome these challenges. MetaTP has two key parts, i.e., basic traffic prediction network (base model) and meta-knowledge transfer. In base model, a two-layer interpolation network is employed to map original time series onto uniformly-spaced reference time points, so that temporal prediction can be effectively performed in the reference space. The meta-learning framework is employed to transfer knowledge from source regions with a large amount of data to target regions with a few data examples via fast adaptation, in order to improve model generalizability on target regions. Moreover, we use two memory networks to capture the global patterns of spatial and temporal information across regions. We evaluate the proposed framework on two real-world datasets, and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework. 
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