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    Neutron stars in astrophysical binary systems represent exciting sources for multimessenger astrophysics. A potential source of electromagnetic transients from compact binary systems is the neutron star ocean, the external fluid layer encasing a neutron star. We present a groundwork study into tidal waves in neutron star oceans and their consequences. Specifically, we investigate how oscillation modes in neutron star oceans can be tidally excited during compact binary inspirals and parabolic encounters. We find that neutron star oceans can sustain tidal waves with frequencies between 0.01 and 20 Hz. Our results suggest that tidally resonant neutron star ocean waves may serve as a never-before studied source of precursor electromagnetic emission prior to neutron star–black hole and binary neutron star mergers. If accompanied by electromagnetic flares, tidally resonant neutron star ocean waves, whose energy budget can reach 1046 erg, may serve as early warning signs (≳1 min before merger) for compact binary mergers. Similarly, excited ocean tidal waves will coincide with neutron star parabolic encounters. Depending on the neutron star ocean model and a flare emission scenario, tidally resonant ocean flares may be detectable by Fermi and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) out to ≳100 Mpc with detection rates as high as ∼7 yr−1 formore »binary neutron stars and ∼0.6 yr−1 for neutron star–black hole binaries. Observations of emission from neutron star ocean tidal waves along with gravitational waves will provide insight into the equation of state at the neutron star surface, the composition of neutron star oceans and crusts, and neutron star geophysics.

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    With the inception of gravitational wave astronomy, astrophysical studies using interferometric techniques have begun to probe previously unknown parts of the Universe. In this work, we investigate the potential of a new interferometric experiment to study a unique group of gravitationally interacting sources within our Solar system: binary asteroids. We present the first study into binary asteroid detection via gravitational signals. We identify the interferometer sensitivity necessary for detecting a population of binary asteroids in the asteroid belt. We find that the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA will have negligible ability to detect these sources as these signals will be well below the LISA noise curve. Consequently, we propose a 4.6 au and a 1 au arm-length interferometer specialized for binary asteroid detection, targeting frequencies between 10−6 and 10−4 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the detection of binary asteroids with space-based gravitational wave interferometers is possible though very difficult, requiring substantially improved interferometric technology over what is presently proposed for space-based missions. If that threshold can be met, an interferometer may be used to map the asteroid belt, allowing for new studies into the evolution of our Solar system.

  3. Abstract One of the proposed channels of binary black hole mergers involves dynamical interactions of three black holes. In such scenarios, it is possible that all three black holes merge in a so-called hierarchical merger chain, where two of the black holes merge first and then their remnant subsequently merges with the remaining single black hole. Depending on the dynamical environment, it is possible that both mergers will appear within the observable time window. Here we perform a search for such merger pairs in the public available LIGO and Virgo data from the O1/O2 runs. Using a frequentist p-value assignment statistics we do not find any significant merger pair candidates, the most significant being GW170809-GW151012 pair. Assuming no observed candidates in O3/O4, we derive upper limits on merger pairs to be ∼11 − 110 year−1Gpc−3, corresponding to a rate that relative to the total merger rate is ∼0.1 − 1.0. From this we argue that both a detection and a non-detection within the next few years can be used to put useful constraints on some dynamical progenitor models.