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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. This paper addresses a critical question pertaining to manufacturing sustainability: is it economically viable to implement an island microgrid to power a flow shop system under power demand and supply uncertainty? Though many studies on microgrid sizing are available, the majority assume the microgrid is interconnected with main grid. This paper aims to size wind turbine, photovoltaic and battery storage to energize a multi-stage flow shop system in island mode. A mixed-integer, non-linear programming model is formulated to optimize the renewable portfolio and capacity with the goal of minimizing the levelized cost of energy. The island microgrid is tested inmore »three locations with diverse climate profiles. The results show that net zero energy flow shop production is economically feasible in the areas where the average wind speed exceed 8 m/s at 80-meter tower height, or the battery cost drops below $100,000/MWh. Sensitivity analyses are further carried out with respect to installation cost, demand response program, production scalability, and weather seasonality.« less