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  1. Electrochemical water splitting is one of the most promising approaches for sustainable energy conversion and storage toward a future hydrogen society. This demands durable and affordable electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this study, we report the preparation of uniform Ni–P–O, Ni–S–O, and Ni–S–P–O electrocatalytic films on nickel foam (NF) substrates via flow cell-assisted electrodeposition. Remarkably, electrodeposition onto 12 cm 2 substrates was optimized by strategically varying critical parameters. The high quality and reproducibility of the materials is attributed to the use of a 3D-printed flow cell with a tailored design. Then,more »the as-fabricated electrodes were tested for overall water splitting in the same flow cell under alkaline conditions. The best-performing sample, NiSP/NF, required relatively low overpotentials of 93 mV for the HER and 259 mV for the OER to produce a current density of 10 mA cm −2 . Importantly, the electrodeposited films underwent oxidation into amorphous nickel (oxy)hydroxides and oxidized S and P species, improving both HER and OER performance. The superior electrocatalytic performance of the Ni–S–P–O films originates from the unique reconstruction process during the HER/OER. Furthermore, the overall water splitting test using the NiSP/NF couple required a low cell voltage of only 1.85 V to deliver a current density of 100 mA cm −2 . Overall, we demonstrate that high-quality electrocatalysts can be obtained using a simple and reproducible electrodeposition method in a robust 3D-printed flow cell.« less
  2. We develop an open-access database that provides a large array of datasets specialized for magnetic compounds as well as magnetic clusters. Our focus is on rare-earth-free magnets. Available datasets include (i) crystallography, (ii) thermodynamic properties, such as the formation energy, and (iii) magnetic properties that are essential for magnetic-material design. Our database features a large number of stable and metastable structures discovered through our adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) searches. Many of these AGA structures have better magnetic properties when compared to those of the existing rare-earth-free magnets and the theoretical structures in other databases. Our database places particular emphasis onmore »site-specific magnetic data, which are obtained by high-throughput first-principles calculations. Such site-resolved data are indispensable for machine-learning modeling. We illustrate how our data-intensive methods promote efficiency of the experimental discovery of new magnetic materials. Our database provides massive datasets that will facilitate an efficient computational screening, machine-learning-assisted design, and the experimental fabrication of new promising magnets.« less
  3. Bright, iridescent colors observed in nature are often caused by light interference within nanoscale periodic lattices, inspiring numerous strategies for coloration devoid of inorganic pigments. Here, we describe and characterize the septum of the Lunaria annua plant that generates large (multicentimeter), freestanding iridescent sheets, with distinctive silvery-white reflective appearance. This originates from the thin-film assembly of cellulose fibers in the cells of the septum that induce thin-film interference–like colors at the microscale, thus accounting for the structure’s overall silvery-white reflectance at the macroscale. These cells further assemble into two thin layers, resulting in a mechanically robust, iridescent septum, which ismore »also significantly light due to its high air porosity (>70%) arising from the cells’ hollow-core structure. This combination of hierarchical structure comprising mechanical and optical function can inspire technological classes of devices and interfaces based on robust, light, and spectrally responsive natural substrates.« less
  4. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic reliability management (DRM) approach with deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for multi-core processors considering device reliability effects (hard error) and transient error of signal (soft error). The proposed method is based on a recently proposed physics-based three-phase electromigration model and an exponential soft error model that considers dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) effects. Our work has been inspired by the recent advancements in DRL for various control and game applications. Compared with the traditional Q-learning based method, DRL has better scalability, lower memory and lower computational complexity. A large class of multi-threadedmore »applications are used as the benchmark to validate and compare the proposed dynamic reliability management methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly reduces memory footprint and computational time compared to the traditional Q-learning based method. Furthermore, we show that the DRL-based DRM method can save 53.50% more energy than the Q-learning based method and 61.29% more than the simple DVFS based method.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023