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Creators/Authors contains: "Sun, Haoqi"

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  1. Abstract Study Objectives

    To use relatively noisy routinely collected clinical data (brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, clinical polysomnography (PSG) recordings, and neuropsychological testing), to investigate hypothesis-driven and data-driven relationships between brain physiology, structure, and cognition.

    Methods

    We analyzed data from patients with clinical PSG, brain MRI, and neuropsychological evaluations. SynthSeg, a neural network-based tool, provided high-quality segmentations despite noise. A priori hypotheses explored associations between brain function (measured by PSG) and brain structure (measured by MRI). Associations with cognitive scores and dementia status were studied. An exploratory data-driven approach investigated age-structure-physiology-cognition links.

    Results

    Six hundred and twenty-three patients with sleep PSG and brain MRI data were included in this study; 160 with cognitive evaluations. Three hundred and forty-two participants (55%) were female, and age interquartile range was 52 to 69 years. Thirty-six individuals were diagnosed with dementia, 71 with mild cognitive impairment, and 326 with major depression. One hundred and fifteen individuals were evaluated for insomnia and 138 participants had an apnea–hypopnea index equal to or greater than 15. Total PSG delta power correlated positively with frontal lobe/thalamic volumes, and sleep spindle density with thalamic volume. rapid eye movement (REM) duration and amygdala volume were positively associated with cognition. Patients with dementia showed significant differences in five brain structure volumes. REM duration, spindle, and slow-oscillation features had strong associations with cognition and brain structure volumes. PSG and MRI features in combination predicted chronological age (R2 = 0.67) and cognition (R2 = 0.40).

    Conclusions

    Routine clinical data holds extended value in understanding and even clinically using brain-sleep-cognition relationships.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Study Objectives

    Dementia is a growing cause of disability and loss of independence in the elderly, yet remains largely underdiagnosed. Early detection and classification of dementia can help close this diagnostic gap and improve management of disease progression. Altered oscillations in brain activity during sleep are an early feature of neurodegenerative diseases and be used to identify those on the verge of cognitive decline.

    Methods

    Our observational cross-sectional study used a clinical dataset of 10 784 polysomnography from 8044 participants. Sleep macro- and micro-structural features were extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Microstructural features were engineered from spectral band powers, EEG coherence, spindle, and slow oscillations. Participants were classified as dementia (DEM), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) based on clinical diagnosis, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Exam scores, clinical dementia rating, and prescribed medications. We trained logistic regression, support vector machine, and random forest models to classify patients into DEM, MCI, and CN groups.

    Results

    For discriminating DEM versus CN, the best model achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.78 and area under precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.22. For discriminating MCI versus CN, the best model achieved an AUROC of 0.73 and AUPRC of 0.18. For discriminating DEM or MCI versus CN, the best model achieved an AUROC of 0.76 and AUPRC of 0.32.

    Conclusions

    Our dementia classification algorithms show promise for incorporating dementia screening techniques using routine sleep EEG. The findings strengthen the concept of sleep as a window into neurodegenerative diseases.

     
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  4. Abstract Objective

    To develop an automated, physiologic metric of immune effector cell‐associated neurotoxicity syndrome among patients undergoing chimeric antigen receptor‐T cell therapy.

    Methods

    We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study from 2016 to 2020 at two tertiary care centers among patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor‐T cell therapy with a CD19 or B‐cell maturation antigen ligand. We determined the daily neurotoxicity grade for each patient during EEG monitoring via chart review and extracted clinical variables and outcomes from the electronic health records. Using quantitative EEG features, we developed a machine learning model to detect the presence and severity of neurotoxicity, known as the EEG immune effector cell‐associated neurotoxicity syndrome score.

    Results

    The EEG immune effector cell‐associated neurotoxicity syndrome score significantly correlated with the grade of neurotoxicity with a median Spearman'sR2of 0.69 (95% CI of 0.59–0.77). The mean area under receiving operator curve was greater than 0.85 for each binary discrimination level. The score also showed significant correlations with maximum ferritin (R20.24,p = 0.008), minimum platelets (R2–0.29,p = 0.001), and dexamethasone usage (R20.42,p < 0.0001). The score significantly correlated with duration of neurotoxicity (R20.31,p < 0.0001).

    Interpretation

    The EEG immune effector cell‐associated neurotoxicity syndrome score possesses high criterion, construct, and predictive validity, which substantiates its use as a physiologic method to detect the presence and severity of neurotoxicity among patients undergoing chimeric antigen receptor T‐cell therapy.

     
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