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  1. Clustering is a machine learning paradigm of dividing sample subjects into a number of groups such that subjects in the same groups are more similar to those in other groups. With advances in information acquisition technologies, samples can frequently be viewed from different angles or in different modalities, generating multi-view data. Multi-view clustering, that clusters subjects into subgroups using multi-view data, has attracted more and more attentions. Although MVC methods have been developed rapidly, there has not been enough survey to summarize and analyze the current progress. Therefore, we propose a novel taxonomy of the MVC approaches. Similar with machinemore »learning methods, we categorize them into generative and discriminative classes. In discriminative class, based on the way to integrate multiple views, we split it further into five groups: Common Eigenvector Matrix, Common Coefficient Matrix, Common Indicator Matrix, Direct Combination and Combination After Projection. Furthermore, we discuss the relationships between MVC and some related topics: multi-view representation, ensemble clustering, multi-task clustering, multi-view supervised and semi-supervised learning. Several representative real-world applications are elaborated for practitioners. Some commonly used multi-view datasets are introduced and several representative MVC algorithms from each group are run to conduct the comparison to analyze how and why they perform on those datasets. To promote future development of MVC approaches, we point out several open problems that may require further investigation and thorough examination.« less
  2. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023