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Creators/Authors contains: "Sun, Tai-ping"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 3, 2024
  2. Abstract SPINDLY (SPY) is a novel nucleocytoplasmic protein O-fucosyltransferase that regulates target protein activity or stability via O-fucosylation of specific Ser/Thr residues. Previous genetic studies indicate that AtSPY regulates plant development during vegetative and reproductive growth by modulating gibberellin and cytokinin responses. AtSPY also regulates the circadian clock and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The pleiotropic phenotypes of spy mutants point to the likely role of AtSPY in regulating key proteins functioning in diverse cellular pathways. However, very few AtSPY targets are known. Here, we identified 88 SPY targets from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Nicotiana benthamiana via the purification of O-fucosylated peptides using Aleuria aurantia lectin followed by electron transfer dissociation-MS/MS analysis. Most AtSPY targets were nuclear proteins that function in DNA repair, transcription, RNA splicing, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. Cytoplasmic AtSPY targets were involved in microtubule-mediated cell division/growth and protein folding. A comparison with the published O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) proteome revealed that 30% of AtSPY targets were also O-GlcNAcylated, indicating that these distinct glycosylations could co-regulate many protein functions. This study unveiled the roles of O-fucosylation in modulating many key nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins and provided a valuable resource for elucidating the regulatory mechanisms involved. 
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  3. Abstract

    Nucleic acid biosensing technologies have the capability to provide valuable information in applications ranging from medical diagnostics to environmental sensing. The unique properties of plasmonic metallic nanoparticles have been used for sensing purposes and among them, plasmonic sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) offer the advantages of sensitive and muliplexed detection owing to the narrow bandwidth of their characteristic Raman spectral features. This paper describes current applications that employ the unique SERS-based inverse molecular sentinel (iMS) nanobiosensors developed in our laboratory. Herein, we demonstrate the use of label-free iMS nanoprobes for detecting specific nucleic acid biomarkers in a wide variety of applications from cancer diagnostics to genetic monitoring for plant biology in renewable biofuel research.

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  4. Abstract

    Phytochromes initiate chloroplast biogenesis by activating genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus, including photosynthesis-associated plastid-encoded genes (PhAPGs).PhAPGs are transcribed by a bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP), but how phytochromes in the nucleus activate chloroplast gene expression remains enigmatic. We report here a forward genetic screen inArabidopsisthat identified NUCLEAR CONTROL OF PEP ACTIVITY (NCP) as a necessary component of phytochrome signaling forPhAPGactivation. NCP is dual-targeted to plastids and the nucleus. While nuclear NCP mediates the degradation of two repressors of chloroplast biogenesis, PIF1 and PIF3, NCP in plastids promotes the assembly of the PEP complex forPhAPGtranscription. NCP and its paralog RCB are non-catalytic thioredoxin-like proteins that diverged in seed plants to adopt nonredundant functions in phytochrome signaling. These results support a model in which phytochromes controlPhAPGexpression through light-dependent double nuclear and plastidial switches that are linked by evolutionarily conserved and dual-localized regulatory proteins.

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