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  1. Sampling of various types of acyclic orientations of chordal graphs plays a central role in several AI applications. In this work we investigate the use of the recently proposed general partial rejection sampling technique of Guo, Jerrum, and Liu, based on the Lovasz Local Lemma, for sampling partial acyclic orientations. For a given undirected graph, an acyclic orientation is an assignment of directions to all of its edges so that there is no directed cycle. In partial orientations some edges are allowed to be undirected. We show how the technique can be used to sample partial acyclic orientations of chordalmore »graphs fast and with a clearly specified underlying distribution. This is in contrast to other samplers of various acyclic orientations with running times exponentially dependent on the maximum degree of the graph.« less
  2. Vedaldi, A. (Ed.)
    In state-of-the-art deep neural networks, both feature normalization and feature attention have become ubiquitous. They are usually studied as separate modules, however. In this paper, we propose a light-weight integration between the two schema and present Attentive Normalization (AN). Instead of learning a single affine transformation, AN learns a mixture of affine transformations and utilizes their weighted-sum as the final affine transformation applied to re-calibrate features in an instance-specific way. The weights are learned by leveraging channel-wise feature attention. In experiments, we test the proposed AN using four representative neural architectures. In the ImageNet-1000 classification benchmark and the MS-COCO 2017more »object detection and instance segmentation benchmark. AN obtains consistent performance improvement for different neural architectures in both benchmarks with absolute increase of top-1 accuracy in ImageNet-1000 between 0.5\% and 2.7\%, and absolute increase up to 1.8\% and 2.2\% for bounding box and mask AP in MS-COCO respectively. We observe that the proposed AN provides a strong alternative to the widely used Squeeze-and-Excitation (SE) module. The source codes are publicly available at \href{https://github.com/iVMCL/AOGNet-v2}{the ImageNet Classification Repo} and \href{https://github.com/iVMCL/AttentiveNorm\_Detection}{the MS-COCO Detection and Segmentation Repo}.« less
  3. The increasingly sophisticated at-home screening systems for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), integrated with both contactless and contact-based sensing modalities, bring convenience and reliability to remote chronic disease management. However, the device pairing processes between system components are vulnerable to wireless exploitation from a noncompliant user wishing to manipulate the test results. This work presents SIENNA, an insider-resistant context-based pairing protocol. SIENNA leverages JADE-ICA to uniquely identify a user’s respiration pattern within a multi-person environment and fuzzy commitment for automatic device pairing, while using friendly jamming technique to prevent an insider with knowledge of respiration patterns from acquiring the pairing key.more »Our analysis and test results show that SIENNA can achieve reliable (> 90% success rate) device pairing under a noisy environment and is robust against the attacker with full knowledge of the context information.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  5. ABSTRACT We perform analysis of the 3D kinematics of Milky Way disc stars in mono-age populations. We focus on stars between Galactocentric distances of R = 6 and 14  kpc, selected from the combined LAMOST Data Release 4 (DR4) red clump giant stars and Gaia DR2 proper motion catalogue. We confirm the 3D asymmetrical motions of recent works and provide time tagging of the Galactic outer disc asymmetrical motions near the anticentre direction out to Galactocentric distances of 14 kpc. Radial Galactocentric motions reach values up to 10 km s−1, depending on the age of the population, and present a north–south asymmetry in themore »region corresponding to density and velocity substructures that were sensitive to the perturbations in the early 6  Gyr. After that time, the disc stars in this asymmetrical structure have become kinematically hotter, and are thus not sensitive to perturbations, and we find the structure is a relatively younger population. With quantitative analysis, we find stars both above and below the plane at R ≳ 9 kpc that exhibit bending mode motions of which the sensitive duration is around 8  Gyr. We speculate that the in-plane asymmetries might not be mainly caused by a fast rotating bar, intrinsically elliptical outer disc, secular expansion of the disc, or streams. Spiral arm dynamics, out-of-equilibrium models, minor mergers or others are important contributors. Vertical motions might be dominated by bending and breathing modes induced by complicated inner or external perturbers. It is likely that many of these mechanisms are coupled together.« less
  6. A bstract A search for a heavy resonance decaying into a top quark and a W boson in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV is presented. The data analyzed were recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 . The top quark is reconstructed as a single jet and the W boson, from its decay into an electron or muon and the corresponding neutrino. A top quark tagging technique based on jet clustering with a variable distance parameter and simultaneous jet grooming is used tomore »identify jets from the collimated top quark decay. The results are interpreted in the context of two benchmark models, where the heavy resonance is either an excited bottom quark b ∗ or a vector-like quark B. A statistical combination with an earlier search by the CMS Collaboration in the all-hadronic final state is performed to place upper cross section limits on these two models. The new analysis extends the lower range of resonance mass probed from 1.4 down to 0.7 TeV. For left-handed, right-handed, and vector-like couplings, b ∗ masses up to 3.0, 3.0, and 3.2 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, respectively. The observed upper limits represent the most stringent constraints on the b ∗ model to date.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023