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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Federated learning (FL) is a collaborative machine-learning (ML) framework particularly suited for ML models requiring numerous training samples, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Random Forest, in the context of various applications, e.g., next-word prediction and eHealth. FL involves various clients participating in the training process by uploading their local models to an FL server in each global iteration. The server aggregates these models to update a global model. The traditional FL process may encounter bottlenecks, known as the straggler problem, where slower clients delay the overall training time. This paper introduces the Latency-awarE Semi-synchronous client Selection and mOdel aggregation for federated learNing (LESSON) method. LESSON allows clients to participate at different frequencies: faster clients contribute more frequently, therefore mitigating the straggler problem and expediting convergence. Moreover, LESSON provides a tunable trade-off between model accuracy and convergence rate by setting varying deadlines. Simulation results show that LESSON outperforms two baseline methods, namely FedAvg and FedCS, in terms of convergence speed and maintains higher model accuracy compared to FedCS.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. In urban environments, tall buildings or structures can pose limits on the direct channel link between a base station (BS) and an Internet-of-Thing device (IoTD) for wireless communication. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with a mounted reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), denoted as UAV-RIS, have been introduced in recent works to enhance the system throughput capacity by acting as a relay node between the BS and the IoTDs in wireless access networks. Uncoordinated UAVs or RIS phase shift elements will make unnecessary adjustments that can significantly impact the signal transmission to IoTDs in the area. The concept of age of information (AoI) is proposed in wireless network research to categorize the freshness of the received update message. To minimize the average sum of AoI (ASoA) in the network, two model-free deep reinforcement learning (DRL) approaches – Off-Policy Deep Q-Network (DQN) and On-Policy Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) – are developed to solve the problem by jointly optimizing the RIS phase shift, the location of the UAV-RIS, and the IoTD transmission scheduling for large-scale IoT wireless networks. Analysis of loss functions and extensive simulations is performed to compare the stability and convergence performance of the two algorithms. The results reveal the superiority of the On-Policy approach, PPO, over the Off-Policy approach, DQN, in terms of stability, convergence speed, and under diverse environment settings 
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