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  1. Abstract We present near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2021krf obtained between days 13 and 259 at several ground-based telescopes. The NIR spectrum at day 68 exhibits a rising K -band continuum flux density longward of ∼2.0 μ m, and a late-time optical spectrum at day 259 shows strong [O i ] 6300 and 6364 Å emission-line asymmetry, both indicating the presence of dust, likely formed in the SN ejecta. We estimate a carbon-grain dust mass of ∼2 × 10 −5 M ⊙ and a dust temperature of ∼900–1200 K associated with this rising continuum and suggest the dust has formed in SN ejecta. Utilizing the one-dimensional multigroup radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, we present two degenerate progenitor solutions for SN 2021krf, characterized by C–O star masses of 3.93 and 5.74 M ⊙ , but with the same best-fit 56 Ni mass of 0.11 M ⊙ for early times (0–70 days). At late times (70–300 days), optical light curves of SN 2021krf decline substantially more slowly than those expected from 56 Co radioactive decay. Lack of H and He lines in the late-time SN spectrum suggests the absence of significant interaction of the ejecta with the circumstellar medium. We reproduce the entire bolometric light curve with a combination of radioactive decay and an additional powering source in the form of a central engine of a millisecond pulsar with a magnetic field smaller than that of a typical magnetar. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. ABSTRACT

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations and analysis of SN 2021bxu (ATLAS21dov), a low-luminosity, fast-evolving Type IIb supernova (SN). SN 2021bxu is unique, showing a large initial decline in brightness followed by a short plateau phase. With $M_r = -15.93 \pm 0.16\, \mathrm{mag}$ during the plateau, it is at the lower end of the luminosity distribution of stripped-envelope supernovae (SE-SNe) and shows a distinct ∼10 d plateau not caused by H- or He-recombination. SN 2021bxu shows line velocities which are at least $\sim 1500\, \mathrm{km\, s^{-1}}$ slower than typical SE-SNe. It is photometrically and spectroscopically similar to Type IIb SNe during the photospheric phases of evolution, with similarities to Ca-rich IIb SNe. We find that the bolometric light curve is best described by a composite model of shock interaction between the ejecta and an envelope of extended material, combined with a typical SN IIb powered by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. The best-fitting parameters for SN 2021bxu include a 56Ni mass of $M_{\mathrm{Ni}} = 0.029^{+0.004}_{-0.005}\, \mathrm{{\rm M}_{\odot }}$, an ejecta mass of $M_{\mathrm{ej}} = 0.61^{+0.06}_{-0.05}\, \mathrm{{\rm M}_{\odot }}$, and an ejecta kinetic energy of $K_{\mathrm{ej}} = 8.8^{+1.1}_{-1.0} \times 10^{49}\, \mathrm{erg}$. From the fits to the properties of the extended material of Ca-rich IIb SNe we find a trend of decreasing envelope radius with increasing envelope mass. SN 2021bxu has MNi on the low end compared to SE-SNe and Ca-rich SNe in the literature, demonstrating that SN 2021bxu-like events are rare explosions in extreme areas of parameter space. The progenitor of SN 2021bxu is likely a low-mass He star with an extended envelope.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present the largest and most homogeneous collection of near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): 339 spectra of 98 individual SNe obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project-II. These spectra, obtained with the FIRE spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, have a spectral range of 0.8–2.5μm. Using this sample, we explore the NIR spectral diversity of SNe Ia and construct a template of spectral time series as a function of the light-curve-shape parameter, color stretchsBV. Principal component analysis is applied to characterize the diversity of the spectral features and reduce data dimensionality to a smaller subspace. Gaussian process regression is then used to model the subspace dependence on phase and light-curve shape and the associated uncertainty. Our template is able to predict spectral variations that are correlated withsBV, such as the hallmark NIR features: Mgiiat early times and theH-band break after peak. Using this template reduces the systematic uncertainties inK-corrections by ∼90% compared to those from the Hsiao template. These uncertainties, defined as the meanK-correction differences computed with the color-matched template and observed spectra, are on the level of 4 × 10−4mag on average. This template can serve as the baseline spectral energy distribution for light-curve fitters and can identify peculiar spectral features that might point to compelling physics. The results presented here will substantially improve future SN Ia cosmological experiments, for both nearby and distant samples.

     
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  4. Abstract

    1991T-like supernovae are the luminous, slow-declining extreme of the Branch shallow-silicon (SS) subclass of Type Ia supernovae. They are distinguished by extremely weak CaiiH & K and Siiiλ6355 and strong Feiiiabsorption features in their optical spectra at pre-maximum phases, and have long been suspected to be over-luminous compared to normal Type Ia supernovae. In this paper, the pseudo-equivalent width of the Siiiλ6355 absorption obtained at light curve phases from ≤ +10 days is combined with the morphology of thei-band light curve to identify a sample of 1991T-like supernovae in the Carnegie Supernova Project II. Hubble diagram residuals show that, at optical as well as near-infrared wavelengths, these events are over-luminous by ∼0.1–0.5 mag with respect to the less extreme Branch SS (1999aa-like) and Branch core-normal supernovae with similarB-band light-curve decline rates.

     
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  9. The type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr displayed an unusual combination of its Si II λλ5972, 6355 features. This includes the ratio of their pseudo-equivalent widths, placing it at the border of the shallow silicon (SS) and core normal (CN) spectral subtype in the Branch diagram, while the Si II λ6355 expansion velocities place it as a high-velocity (HV) object in the Wang et al. spectral type that most interestingly evolves slowly, placing it in the low-velocity gradient (LVG) typing of Benetti et al. Only 5% of SNe Ia are HV and located in the SS+CN portion of the Branch diagram, and fewer than 10% of SNe Ia are both HV and LVG. These features point toward SN 2012fr being quite unusual, similar in many ways to the peculiar SN 2000cx. We modeled the spectral evolution of SN 2012fr to see if we could gain some insight into its evolutionary behavior. We use the parameterized radiative transfer code SYNOW to probe the abundance stratification of SN 2012fr at pre-maximum, maximum, and post-maximum light epochs. We also use a grid of W7 models in the radiative transfer code PHOENIX to probe the effect of different density structures on the formation of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature at post-maximum epochs. We find that the unusual features observed in SN 2012fr are likely due to a shell-like density enhancement in the outer ejecta. We comment on possible reasons for atypical Ca II absorption features, and suggest that they are related to the Si II features. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. 
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