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Creators/Authors contains: "Sur, Ankan"

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  1. Abstract

    We present updated atmospheric tables suitable for calculating the post-formation evolution and cooling of Jupiter and Jupiter-like exoplanets. These tables are generated using a 1D radiative transfer modeling code that incorporates the latest opacities and realistic prescriptions for stellar irradiation and ammonia clouds. To ensure the accuracy of our model parameters, we calibrate them against the measured temperature structure and geometric albedo spectrum of Jupiter, its effective temperature, and its inferred internal temperature. As a test case, we calculate the cooling history of Jupiter using an adiabatic and homogeneous interior and compare with extant models now used to evolve Jupiter and the giant planets. We find that our model reasonably matches Jupiter after evolving a hot-start initial condition to the present age of the solar system, with a discrepancy in brightness temperature/radius within 2%. Our algorithm allows us to customize for different cloud, irradiation, and metallicity parameters. This class of boundary conditions can be used to study the evolution of solar system giant planets and exoplanets with more complicated interior structures and nonadiabatic, inhomogeneous internal profiles.

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    Strong magnetic fields play an important role in powering the emission of neutron stars. Nevertheless, a full understanding of the interior configuration of the field remains elusive. In this work, we present general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the magnetic field evolution in neutron stars lasting ${\sim } {880}\,$ms (∼6.5 Alfvén crossing periods) and up to resolutions of $0.1155\,$km using Athena++. We explore two different initial conditions, one with purely poloidal magnetic field and the other with a dominant toroidal component, and study the poloidal and toroidal field energies, the growth times of the various instability-driven oscillation modes, and turbulence. We find that the purely poloidal setup generates a toroidal field, which later decays exponentially reaching $1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the total magnetic energy, showing no evidence of reaching equilibrium. The initially stronger toroidal field setup, on the other hand, loses up to 20 per cent of toroidal energy and maintains this state till the end of our simulation. We also explore the hypothesis, drawn from previous MHD simulations, that turbulence plays an important role in the quasi-equilibrium state. An analysis of the spectra in our higher resolution setups reveals, however, that in most cases we are not observing turbulence at small scales, but rather a noisy velocity field inside the star. We also observe that the majority of the magnetic energy gets dissipated as heat increasing the internal energy of the star, while a small fraction gets radiated away as electromagnetic radiation.

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