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  1. We prove a new generalization bound that shows for any class of linear predictors in Gaussian space, the Rademacher complexity of the class and the training error under any continuous loss ℓ can control the test error under all Moreau envelopes of the loss ℓ . We use our finite-sample bound to directly recover the “optimistic rate” of Zhou et al. (2021) for linear regression with the square loss, which is known to be tight for minimal ℓ2-norm interpolation, but we also handle more general settings where the label is generated by a potentially misspecified multi-index model. The same argument can analyze noisy interpolation of max-margin classifiers through the squared hinge loss, and establishes consistency results in spiked-covariance settings. More generally, when the loss is only assumed to be Lipschitz, our bound effectively improves Talagrand’s well-known contraction lemma by a factor of two, and we prove uniform convergence of interpolators (Koehler et al. 2021) for all smooth, non-negative losses. Finally, we show that application of our generalization bound using localized Gaussian width will generally be sharp for empirical risk minimizers, establishing a non-asymptotic Moreau envelope theory 
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  2. Roth, A (Ed.)
    It is well understood that classification algorithms, for example, for deciding on loan applications, cannot be evaluated for fairness without taking context into account. We examine what can be learned from a fairness oracle equipped with an underlying understanding of “true” fairness. The oracle takes as input a (context, classifier) pair satisfying an arbitrary fairness definition, and accepts or rejects the pair according to whether the classifier satisfies the underlying fairness truth. Our principal conceptual result is an extraction procedure that learns the underlying truth; moreover, the procedure can learn an approximation to this truth given access to a weak form of the oracle. Since every “truly fair” classifier induces a coarse metric, in which those receiving the same decision are at distance zero from one another and those receiving different decisions are at distance one, this extraction process provides the basis for ensuring a rough form of metric fairness, also known as individual fairness. Our principal technical result is a higher fidelity extractor under a mild technical constraint on the weak oracle’s conception of fairness. Our framework permits the scenario in which many classifiers, with differing outcomes, may all be considered fair. Our results have implications for interpretablity – a highly desired but poorly defined property of classification systems that endeavors to permit a human arbiter to reject classifiers deemed to be“unfair” or illegitimately derived. 
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