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Creators/Authors contains: "Surman, R."

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  1. Abstract

    Theβ-delayed neutron-emission probabilities of 28 exotic neutron-rich isotopes of Pm, Sm, Eu, and Gd were measured for the first time at RIKEN Nishina Center using the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA) and the BRIKEN neutron detector array. The existingβ-decay half-life (T1/2) database was significantly increased toward more neutron-rich isotopes, and uncertainties for previously measured values were decreased. The new data not only constrain the theoretical predictions of half-lives andβ-delayed neutron-emission probabilities, but also allow for probing the mechanisms of formation of the high-mass wing of the rare-earth peak located atA≈ 160 in ther-process abundance distribution through astrophysical reaction network calculations. An uncertainty quantification of the calculated abundance patterns with the new data shows a reduction of the uncertainty in the rare-earth peak region. The newly introduced variance-based sensitivity analysis method offers valuable insight into the influence of important nuclear physics inputs on the calculated abundance patterns. The analysis has identified the half-lives of168Sm and of several gadolinium isotopes as some of the key variables among the current experimental data to understand the remaining abundance uncertainty atA= 167–172.

  2. Meteoritic analysis demonstrates that radioactive nuclei heavier than iron were present in the early Solar System. Among them, 129I and 247Cm both have a rapid neutron-capture process (r process) origin and decay on the same timescale (≃ 15.6 Myr). We show that the 129I/247Cm abundance ratio in the early Solar System (438±184) is immune to galactic evolution uncertainties and represents the first direct observational constraint for the properties of the last r-process event that polluted the pre-solar nebula. We investigate the physical conditions of this event using nucleosynthesis calculations and demonstrate that moderately neutron-rich ejecta can produce the observed ratio. We conclude that a dominant contribution by exceedingly neutron-rich ejecta is highly disfavoured.
  3. Abstract

    Nuclear astrophysics is a field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics, which seeks to understand the nuclear engines of astronomical objects and the origin of the chemical elements. This white paper summarizes progress and status of the field, the new open questions that have emerged, and the tremendous scientific opportunities that have opened up with major advances in capabilities across an ever growing number of disciplines and subfields that need to be integrated. We take a holistic view of the field discussing the unique challenges and opportunities in nuclear astrophysics in regards to science, diversity, education, and the interdisciplinarity and breadth of the field. Clearly nuclear astrophysics is a dynamic field with a bright future that is entering a new era of discovery opportunities.