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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 6, 2023
  2. null (Ed.)
    Semivolatile oxygenated organic compounds (SV-OVOCs) are important atmospheric species, in particular for the production and chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter and related impacts on air quality and climate. In this study, SV-OVOCs were collected in the horizontal plane of the roughness layer over the tropical forest in the central Amazon during the wet season of 2018. A sampler mounted to a copter-type, hovering unmanned aerial vehicle was used. Underlying the collection region, a plateau forest transitioned into a slope forest across several hundred meters. The concentrations of pinonic and pinic acids, which are monoterpene oxidation products, had no statistical difference over the two forests. By comparison, across the study period, differences in the concentration of 2-methyltetrols, which are products of isoprene oxidation, ranged from −70% to +480% over the two forests. The chemical lifetime of 2-methyltetrols in the atmosphere is sufficiently long that heterogeneity in the isoprene emission rate from the two forests followed by atmospheric oxidation does not explain the concentration heterogeneity of 2-methyltetrols. Standing waves and local meteorology also cannot account for the heterogeneity. Of the possibilities considered, the most plausible explanation is the direct emission from the forest of 2-methyltetrols produced through biological processes within the plants. Under this explanation, the rate of direct SV-OVOC emissions should be modulated by forest type and related environmental stressors. Direct emissions of SV-OVOCs should be more broadly considered for constraining and improving models of atmospheric composition, transport, and chemistry over tropical forests. 
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    Abstract. There are many fuels used for domestic purposes in east Africa, producing a significant atmospheric burden of the resulting aerosols, which includes biomass burning particles. However, the aerosol physicochemical properties are poorly understood. Here, the combustion of eucalyptus, acacia, and olive fuels was performed at 500 and 800 ∘C in a tube furnace, followed by immediate filter collection for fresh samples or introduction into a photochemical chamber to simulate atmospheric photochemical aging under the influence of anthropogenic emissions. The aerosol generated in the latter experiment was collected onto filters after 12 h of photochemical aging. 500 and 800 ∘C were selected to simulate smoldering and flaming combustion, respectively, and to cover a range of combustion conditions. Methanol extracts from Teflon filters were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to both a diode array detector and an electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC/DAD-ESI-HR-QTOFMS) to determine the light absorption properties of biomass burning organic aerosol constituents chemically characterized at the molecular level. Few chemical or UV–visible (UV: ultraviolet) differences were apparent between samples for the fuels when combusted at 800 ∘C. Differences in single-scattering albedo (SSA) between fresh samples at this temperature were attributed to compounds not captured in this analysis, with eucalyptol being one suspected missing component. For fresh combustion at 500 ∘C, many species were present; lignin pyrolysis and distillation products are more prevalent in eucalyptus, while pyrolysis products of cellulose and at least one nitro-aromatic species were more prevalent in acacia. SSA trends areconsistent with this, particularly if the absorption of those chromophoresextends to the 500–570 nm region. Upon aging, both show that resorcinolor catechol was removed to the highest degree, and both aerosol types weredominated by loss of pyrolysis and distillation products, though they differed in the specific compounds being consumed by the photochemical aging process. 
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