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  1. Many technologically useful magnetic oxides are ferrimagnetic insulators, which consist of chemically distinct cations. Here, we examine the spin dynamics of different magnetic cations in ferrimagnetic NiZnAl-ferrite (Ni0.65Zn0.35Al0.8Fe1.2O4) under continuous microwave excitation. Specifically, we employ time-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance to separately probe Fe2+/3+ and Ni2+ cations on different sublattice sites. Our results show that the precessing cation moments retain a rigid, collinear configuration to within ≈2°. Moreover, the effective spin relaxation is identical to within <10% for all magnetic cations in the ferrite. Thus, we validate the oft-assumed “ferromagnetic-like” dynamics in the resonantly driven ferrimagnetic oxide: the magnetic moments from different cations precess as a coherent, collective magnetization, despite the high contents of nonmagnetic Zn2+ and Al3+ diluting the exchange interactions.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We present the first theoretical and experimental evidence of time-resolved dynamic x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) measurements of GHz magnetic precessions driven by ferromagnetic resonance in both metallic and insulating thin films. Our findings show a dynamic XMLD in both ferromagnetic Ni80Fe20and ferrimagnetic Ni0.65Zn0.35Al0.8Fe1.2O4for different measurement geometries and linear polarizations. A detailed analysis of the observed signals reveals the importance of separating different harmonic components in the dynamic signal in order to identify the XMLD response without the influence of competing contributions. In particular, RF magnetic resonance elicits a large dynamic XMLD response at the fundamental frequency under experimental geometries with oblique x-ray polarization. The geometric range and experimental sensitivity can be improved by isolating the 2ωFourier component of the dynamic response. These results illustrate the potential of dynamic XMLD and represent a milestone accomplishment toward the study of GHz spin dynamics in systems beyond ferromagnetic order.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract

    We present the results of a search for core-collapse supernova neutrinos, using long-term KamLAND data from 2002 March 9 to 2020 April 25. We focus on the electron antineutrinos emitted from supernovae in the energy range of 1.8–111 MeV. Supernovae will make a neutrino event cluster with the duration of ∼10 s in the KamLAND data. We find no neutrino clusters and give the upper limit on the supernova rate to be 0.15 yr−1with a 90% confidence level. The detectable range, which corresponds to a >95% detection probability, is 40–59 kpc and 65–81 kpc for core-collapse supernovae and failed core-collapse supernovae, respectively. This paper proposes to convert the supernova rate obtained by the neutrino observation to the Galactic star formation rate. Assuming a modified Salpeter-type initial mass function, the upper limit on the Galactic star formation rate is <(17.5–22.7)Myr−1with a 90% confidence level.

     
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