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  1. The characteristics of NiO/β-(Al0.21Ga0.79)2O3/Ga2O3 heterojunction lateral geometry rectifiers with the epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were measured over a temperature range from 25 °C–225 °C. The forward current increased with temperature, while the on-state resistance decreased from 360 Ω.cm2at 25 °C to 30 Ω.cm2at 225 °C. The forward turn-on voltage was reduced from 4 V at 25 °C to 1.9 V at 225 °C. The reverse breakdown voltage at room temperature was ∼4.2 kV, with a temperature coefficient of −16.5 V K−1. This negative temperature coefficient precludes avalanche being the breakdown mechanism and indicates that defects still dominate the reverse conduction characteristics. The corresponding power figures-of-merit were 0.27–0.49 MW.cm−2. The maximum on/off ratios improved with temperature from 2105 at 25 °C to 3 × 107 at 225 °C when switching from 5 V forward to 0 V. The high temperature performance of the NiO/β-(Al0.21Ga0.79)2O3/Ga2O3 lateral rectifiers is promising if the current rate of optimization continues.

     
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  2. NiO/β-(Al x Ga 1− x ) 2 O 3 /Ga 2 O 3 heterojunction lateral geometry rectifiers with diameter 50–100  μm exhibited maximum reverse breakdown voltages >7 kV, showing the advantage of increasing the bandgap using the β-(Al x Ga 1− x ) 2 O 3 alloy. This Si-doped alloy layer was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with an Al composition of ∼21%. On-state resistances were in the range of 50–2180 Ω cm 2 , leading to power figures-of-merit up to 0.72 MW cm −2 . The forward turn-on voltage was in the range of 2.3–2.5 V, with maximum on/off ratios >700 when switching from 5 V forward to reverse biases up to −100 V. Transmission line measurements showed the specific contact resistance was 0.12 Ω cm 2 . The breakdown voltage is among the highest reported for any lateral geometry Ga 2 O 3 -based rectifier. 
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  3. Halide vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) Ga2O3 films were grown on c-plane sapphire and diamond substrates at temperatures up to 550 °C without the use of a barrier dielectric layer to protect the diamond surface. Corundum phase α-Ga2O3 was grown on the sapphire substrates, whereas the growth on diamond resulted in regions of nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3 (nc-β-Ga2O3) when oxygen was present in the HVPE reactor only during film growth. X-ray diffraction confirmed the growth of α-Ga2O3 on sapphire but failed to detect any β-Ga2O3 reflections from the films grown on diamond. These films were further characterized via Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the β-Ga2O3 phase of these films. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the nanocrystalline character of these films. From cathodoluminescence spectra, three emission bands, UVL′, UVL, and BL, were observed for both the α-Ga2O3/sapphire and nc-Ga2O3/diamond, and these bands were centered at approximately 3.7, 3.2, and 2.7 eV.

     
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  4. β-Ga2O3 is an emerging ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor, holding a tremendous potential for power-switching devices for next-generation high power electronics. The performance of such devices strongly relies on the precise control of electrical properties of β-Ga2O3, which can be achieved by implantation of dopant ions. However, a detailed understanding of the impact of ion implantation on the structure of β-Ga2O3 remains elusive. Here, using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we investigate the nature of structural damage in ion-implanted β-Ga2O3 and its recovery upon heat treatment with the atomic-scale spatial resolution. We reveal that upon Sn ion implantation, Ga2O3 films undergo a phase transformation from the monoclinic β-phase to the defective cubic spinel γ-phase, which contains high-density antiphase boundaries. Using the planar defect models proposed for the γ-Al2O3, which has the same space group as β-Ga2O3, and atomic-resolution microscopy images, we identify that the observed antiphase boundaries are the {100}1/4 ⟨110⟩ type in cubic structure. We show that post-implantation annealing at 1100 °C under the N2 atmosphere effectively recovers the β-phase; however, nano-sized voids retained within the β-phase structure and a γ-phase surface layer are identified as remanent damage. Our results offer an atomic-scale insight into the structural evolution of β-Ga2O3 under ion implantation and high-temperature annealing, which is key to the optimization of semiconductor processing conditions for relevant device design and the theoretical understanding of defect formation and phase stability.

     
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  5. This Review highlights basic and transition metal conducting and semiconducting oxides. We discuss their material and electronic properties with an emphasis on the crystal, electronic, and band structures. The goal of this Review is to present a current compilation of material properties and to summarize possible uses and advantages in device applications. We discuss Ga 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO, CdO, NiO, CuO, and Sc 2 O 3 . We outline the crystal structure of the oxides, and we present lattice parameters of the stable phases and a discussion of the metastable polymorphs. We highlight electrical properties such as bandgap energy, carrier mobility, effective carrier masses, dielectric constants, and electrical breakdown field. Based on literature availability, we review the temperature dependence of properties such as bandgap energy and carrier mobility among the oxides. Infrared and Raman modes are presented and discussed for each oxide providing insight into the phonon properties. The phonon properties also provide an explanation as to why some of the oxide parameters experience limitations due to phonon scattering such as carrier mobility. Thermal properties of interest include the coefficient of thermal expansion, Debye temperature, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. Anisotropy is evident in the non-cubic oxides, and its impact on bandgap energy, carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, phonon modes, and carrier effective mass is discussed. Alloys, such as AlGaO, InGaO, (Al x In y Ga 1− x− y ) 2 O 3 , ZnGa 2 O 4 , ITO, and ScGaO, were included where relevant as they have the potential to allow for the improvement and alteration of certain properties. This Review provides a fundamental material perspective on the application space of semiconducting oxide-based devices in a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications. 
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  6. null (Ed.)