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  1. Abstract

    Pupillary light reflex (PLR) is an involuntary response where the pupil size changes with luminance. Studies have shown that PLR response was altered in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other neurological disorders. However, PLR in infants and toddlers is still understudied. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate PLR in children of 6–24 months using a remote pupillography device. The participants are categorized into two groups. The ‘high risk’ (HR) group includes children with one or more siblings diagnosed with ASDs; whereas the ‘low risk’ (LR) group includes children without an ASD diagnosis in the family history.more »The participants’ PLR was measured every six months until the age of 24 months. The results indicated a significant age effect in multiple PLR parameters including resting pupil radius, minimal pupil radius, relative constriction, latency, and response time. In addition, the HR group had a significantly larger resting and minimal pupil size than the LR group. The experimental data acquired in this study revealed not only general age-related PLR changes in infants and toddlers, but also different PLRs in children with a higher risk of ASD.

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  2. Abstract The results of gamma-ray observations of the binary system HESS J0632 + 057 collected during 450 hr over 15 yr, between 2004 and 2019, are presented. Data taken with the atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS at energies above 350 GeV were used together with observations at X-ray energies obtained with Swift-XRT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Suzaku. Some of these observations were accompanied by measurements of the H α emission line. A significant detection of the modulation of the very high-energy gamma-ray fluxes with a period of 316.7 ± 4.4 days is reported, consistent with the period ofmore »317.3 ± 0.7 days obtained with a refined analysis of X-ray data. The analysis of data from four orbital cycles with dense observational coverage reveals short-timescale variability, with flux-decay timescales of less than 20 days at very high energies. Flux variations observed over a timescale of several years indicate orbit-to-orbit variability. The analysis confirms the previously reported correlation of X-ray and gamma-ray emission from the system at very high significance, but cannot find any correlation of optical H α parameters with fluxes at X-ray or gamma-ray energies in simultaneous observations. The key finding is that the emission of HESS J0632 + 057 in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands is highly variable on different timescales. The ratio of gamma-ray to X-ray flux shows the equality or even dominance of the gamma-ray energy range. This wealth of new data is interpreted taking into account the insufficient knowledge of the ephemeris of the system, and discussed in the context of results reported on other gamma-ray binary systems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022