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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 27, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Machine learning-augmented materials design is an emerging method for rapidly developing new materials. It is especially useful for designing new nanoarchitectured materials, whose design parameter space is often large and complex. Metal-agent dealloying, a materials design method for fabricating nanoporous or nanocomposite from a wide range of elements, has attracted significant interest. Here, a machine learning approach is introduced to explore metal-agent dealloying, leading to the prediction of 132 plausible ternary dealloying systems. A machine learning-augmented framework is tested, including predicting dealloying systems and characterizing combinatorial thin films via automated and autonomous machine learning-driven synchrotron techniques. This work demonstrates the potential to utilize machine learning-augmented methods for creating nanoarchitectured thin films.

  3. A photonic generative adversarial network that harnesses optoelectronic noises to generate handwritten numbers is demonstrated.
  4. Despite the immense importance of ceria–zirconia solid solutions in heterogeneous catalysis, and the growing consensus that catalytic activity correlates with the concentration of reduced Ce 3+ species and accompanying oxygen vacancies, the extent of reduction at the surfaces of these materials, where catalysis occurs, is unknown. Using angle-resolved X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), we quantify under technologically relevant conditions the Ce 3+ concentration in the surface (2–3 nm) and bulk regions of ceria–zirconia films grown on single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ (001). In all circumstances, we observe substantial Ce 3+ enrichment at the surface relative to the bulk. Surprisingly, the degree of enhancement is highest in the absence of Zr. This behavior stands in direct contrast to that of the bulk in which the Ce 3+ concentration monotonically increases with increasing Zr content. These results suggest that while Zr enhances the oxygen storage capacity in ceria, undoped ceria may have higher surface catalytic activity. They further urge caution in the use of bulk properties as surrogate descriptors for surface characteristics and hence catalytic activity.
  5. Multimetallic nanoclusters (MMNCs) offer unique and tailorable surface chemistries that hold great potential for numerous catalytic applications. The efficient exploration of this vast chemical space necessitates an accelerated discovery pipeline that supersedes traditional “trial-and-error” experimentation while guaranteeing uniform microstructures despite compositional complexity. Herein, we report the high-throughput synthesis of an extensive series of ultrafine and homogeneous alloy MMNCs, achieved by 1) a flexible compositional design by formulation in the precursor solution phase and 2) the ultrafast synthesis of alloy MMNCs using thermal shock heating (i.e., ∼1,650 K, ∼500 ms). This approach is remarkably facile and easily accessible compared to conventional vapor-phase deposition, and the particle size and structural uniformity enable comparative studies across compositionally different MMNCs. Rapid electrochemical screening is demonstrated by using a scanning droplet cell, enabling us to discover two promising electrocatalysts, which we subsequently validated using a rotating disk setup. This demonstrated high-throughput material discovery pipeline presents a paradigm for facile and accelerated exploration of MMNCs for a broad range of applications.
  6. Abstract

    Analyzing large X-ray diffraction (XRD) datasets is a key step in high-throughput mapping of the compositional phase diagrams of combinatorial materials libraries. Optimizing and automating this task can help accelerate the process of discovery of materials with novel and desirable properties. Here, we report a new method for pattern analysis and phase extraction of XRD datasets. The method expands the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization method, which has been used previously to analyze such datasets, by combining it with custom clustering and cross-correlation algorithms. This new method is capable of robust determination of the number of basis patterns present in the data which, in turn, enables straightforward identification of any possible peak-shifted patterns. Peak-shifting arises due to continuous change in the lattice constants as a function of composition and is ubiquitous in XRD datasets from composition spread libraries. Successful identification of the peak-shifted patterns allows proper quantification and classification of the basis XRD patterns, which is necessary in order to decipher the contribution of each unique single-phase structure to the multi-phase regions. The process can be utilized to determine accurately the compositional phase diagram of a system under study. The presented method is applied to one synthetic and one experimental datasetmore »and demonstrates robust accuracy and identification abilities.

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  7. Elastocaloric cooling, a solid-state cooling technology, exploits the latent heat released and absorbed by stress-induced phase transformations. Hysteresis associated with transformation, however, is detrimental to efficient energy conversion and functional durability. We have created thermodynamically efficient, low-hysteresis elastocaloric cooling materials by means of additive manufacturing of nickel-titanium. The use of a localized molten environment and near-eutectic mixing of elemental powders has led to the formation of nanocomposite microstructures composed of a nickel-rich intermetallic compound interspersed among a binary alloy matrix. The microstructure allowed extremely small hysteresis in quasi-linear stress-strain behaviors—enhancing the materials efficiency by a factor of four to seven—and repeatable elastocaloric performance over 1 million cycles. Implementing additive manufacturing to elastocaloric cooling materials enables distinct microstructure control of high-performance metallic refrigerants with long fatigue life.