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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2023
  2. Interest in inorganic ternary nitride materials has grown rapidly over the past few decades, as their diverse chemistries and structures make them appealing for a variety of applications. Due to synthetic challenges posed by the stability of N 2 , the number of predicted nitride compounds dwarfs the number that has been synthesized, offering a breadth of opportunity for exploration. This review summarizes the fundamental properties and structural chemistry of ternary nitrides, leveraging metastability and the impact of nitrogen chemical potential. A discussion of prevalent defects, both detrimental and beneficial, is followed by a survey of synthesis techniques and their interplay with metastability. Throughout the review, we highlight applications (such as solid-state lighting, electrochemical energy storage, and electronic devices) in which ternary nitrides show particular promise.
  3. II–IV–V 2 materials, ternary analogs to III–V materials, are emerging for their potential applications in devices such as LEDs and solar cells. Controlling cation ordering in II–IV–V 2 materials offers the potential to tune properties at nearly fixed compositions and lattice parameters. While tuning properties at a fixed lattice constant through ordering has the potential to be a powerful tool used in device fabrication, cation ordering also creates challenges with characterization and quantification of ordering. In this work, we investigate two different methods to quantify cation ordering in ZnGeP 2 thin films: a stretching parameter calculated from lattice constants , and an order parameter determined from the cation site occupancies ( S ). We use high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) to determine and resonant energy X-ray diffraction (REXD) to extract S . REXD is critical to distinguish between elements with similar Z -number ( e.g. Zn and Ge). We found that samples with a corresponding to the ordered chalcopyrite structure had only partially ordered S values. The optical absorption onset for these films occurred at lower energy than expected for fully ordered ZnGeP 2 , indicating that S is a more accurate descriptor of cation order than the stretching parameter.more »Since disorder is complex and can occur on many length scales, metrics for quantifying disorder should be chosen that most accurately reflect the physical properties of interest.« less