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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Inclusion in mathematics education is strongly tied to discourse rich classrooms, where students ideas play a central role. Talk moves are specific discursive practices that promote inclusive and equitable participation in classroom discussions. This paper describes the development of the TalkMoves application, which provides teachers with detailed feedback on their usage of talk moves based on accountable talk theory. Building on our recent work to automate the classification of teacher talk moves, we have expanded the application to also include feedback on a set of student talk moves. We present results from several deep learning models trained to classify student sentences into student talk moves with performance up to 73% F1. The classroom data used for training these models were collected from multiple sources that were pre-processed and annotated by highly reliable experts. We validated the performance of the model on an out-of-sample dataset which included 166 classroom transcripts collected from teachers piloting the application.
  3. As the COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting life worldwide, related online communities are popping up. In particular, two “new” communities, /r/China flu and /r/Coronavirus, emerged on Reddit and have been dedicated to COVID- related discussions from the very beginning of this pandemic. With /r/Coronavirus promoted as the official community on Reddit, it remains an open question how users choose between these two highly-related communities. In this paper, we characterize user trajectories in these two communities from the beginning of COVID-19 to the end of September 2020. We show that new users of /r/China flu and /r/Coronavirus were similar from January to March. After that, their differences steadily increase, both in language distance and membership prediction, as the pandemic continues to unfold. Furthermore, users who started at /r/China flu from January to March were more likely to leave, while those who started in later months tend to remain highly “loyal”. To understand this difference, we develop a movement analysis framework to understand membership changes in these two communities and identify a significant proportion of /r/China flu members (around 50%) that moved to /r/Coronavirus in February. This movement turns out to be highly predictable based on other subreddits that users were previously activemore »in. Our work demonstrates how two highly-related communities emerge and develop their own identity in a crisis, and highlights the important role of existing communities in understanding such an emergence.« less
  4. TalkMoves is an innovative application designed to support K-12 mathematics teachers to reflect on, and continuously improve their instructional practices. This application combines state-of-the-art natural language processing capabilities with automated speech recognition to automatically analyze classroom recordings and provide teachers with personalized feedback on their use of specific types of discourse aimed at broadening and deepening classroom conversations about mathematics. These specific discourse strategies are referred to as “talk moves” within the mathematics education community and prior research has documented the ways in which systematic use of these discourse strategies can positively impact student engagement and learning. In this article, we describe the TalkMoves application’s cloud-based infrastructure for managing and processing classroom recordings, and its interface for providing teachers with feedback on their use of talk moves during individual teaching episodes. We present the series of model architectures we developed, and the studies we conducted, to develop our best-performing, transformer-based model (F1 = 79.3%). We also discuss several technical challenges that need to be addressed when working with real-world speech and language data from noisy K-12 classrooms.
  5. TalkMoves is an innovative application designed to support K-12 mathematics teachers to reflect on, and continuously improve their instructional practices. This application com- bines state-of-the-art natural language processing capabilities with automated speech recognition to automatically analyze classroom recordings and provide teachers with personalized feedback on their use of specific types of discourse aimed at broadening and deepening classroom conversations about mathematics. These specific discourse strategies are referred to as “talk moves” within the mathematics education com- munity and prior research has documented the ways in which systematic use of these discourse strategies can positively impact student engagement and learning. In this article, we describe the TalkMoves application’s cloud-based infrastruc- ture for managing and processing classroom recordings, and its interface for providing teachers with feedback on their use of talk moves during individual teaching episodes. We present the series of model architectures we developed, and the studies we conducted, to develop our best-performing, transformer-based model (F1 = 79.3%). We also discuss sev- eral technical challenges that need to be addressed when working with real-world speech and language data from noisy K-12 classrooms.
  6. Abstract We report the discovery of seven new Galactic pulsars with the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment’s Fast Radio Burst (CHIME/FRB) backend. These sources were first identified via single pulses in CHIME/FRB, then followed up with CHIME/Pulsar. Four sources appear to be rotating radio transients, pulsar-like sources with occasional single-pulse emission with an underlying periodicity. Of those four sources, three have detected periods ranging from 220 ms to 2.726 s. Three sources have more persistent but still intermittent emission and are likely intermittent or nulling pulsars. We have determined phase-coherent timing solutions for the latter two. These seven sources are the first discovery of previously unknown Galactic sources with CHIME/FRB and highlight the potential of fast radio burst detection instruments to search for intermittent Galactic radio sources.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  7. 1. Plants face many environmental stresses that can impact their survival, development and fitness. Insects are the most diverse, abundant and threatening herbivores in nature. As a consequence, plants produce direct chemical and physical defences to reduce herbivory. They also release volatiles to recruit natural enemies that indirectly protect them from herbivory. The recruitment of parasitic wasps can benefit plant fitness because they ultimately kill their insect hosts. 2. Recently, studies showed that parasitoids can indirectly mediate plant defences by modulating herbivore oral secretions. In addition to the direct benefits of parasitoids in terms of reducing herbivore survival, we tested if the reduction in induced defences by parasitized caterpillars compared to non-parasitized caterpillars may reduce the costs associated with defence expression. 3. We provide evidence that tomato plants treated with saliva from parasitized caterpillars have significantly higher fitness parameters including increased flower numbers (16.3%) and heavier fruit weight (13.5%), compared to plants treated with saliva from non-parasitized caterpillars. Since plants were grown without actual herbivores, the higher values for these fitness parameters were due to lower costs of induced defences and not due to reduced herbivory by parasitized caterpillars. Furthermore, the resulting seed germination time was shorter and the germinationmore »rate was higher when the maternal plants were previously exposed to parasitized herbivore treatment compared to control (non-treated) plants. 4. Overall, application of saliva did not result in transgenerational priming of offspring defence responses. However, offspring of parents exposed to caterpillar saliva had lower constitutive levels and higher induced levels of trypsin inhibitor than offspring from unexposed parents. 5. This study shows that the saliva of parasitized caterpillars can modulate plant defences and further demonstrates that the lower induction of plant defences is associated with elevated plant fitness in the absence of herbivore feeding, suggesting that induced plant defences are costly.« less
  8. Abstract We present new discoveries and results from long-term timing of 72 pulsars discovered in the Pulsar Arecibo L -band Feed Array (PALFA) survey, including precise determination of astrometric and spin parameters, and flux density and scatter broadening measurements at 1.4 GHz. Notable discoveries include two young pulsars (characteristic ages ∼30 kyr) with no apparent supernova remnant associations, three mode-changing, 12 nulling and two intermittent pulsars. We detected eight glitches in five pulsars. Among them is PSR J1939+2609, an apparently old pulsar (characteristic age ∼1 Gy), and PSR J1954+2529, which likely belongs to a newly emerging class of binary pulsars. The latter is the only pulsar among the 72 that is clearly not isolated: a nonrecycled neutron star with a 931 ms spin period in an eccentric ( e = 0.114) wide ( P b = 82.7 days) orbit with a companion of undetermined nature having a minimum mass of ∼0.6 M ⊙ . Since operations at Arecibo ceased in 2020 August, we give a final tally of PALFA sky coverage, and compare its 207 pulsar discoveries to the known population. On average, they are 50% more distant than other Galactic plane radio pulsars; PALFA millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have twicemore »the dispersion measure per unit spin period than the known population of MSP in the plane. The four intermittent pulsars discovered by PALFA more than double the population of such objects, which should help to improve our understanding of pulsar magnetosphere physics. The statistics for these, rotating radio transients, and nulling pulsars suggest that there are many more of these objects in the Galaxy than was previously thought.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  9. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are widely recognized as an ecologically important defensive response of plants against herbivory. Although the induction of this ‘cry for help’ has been well documented, only a few studies have investigated the inhibition of HIPVs by herbivores and little is known about whether herbivores have evolved mechanisms to inhibit the release of HIPVs. To examine the role of herbivore effectors in modulating HIPVs and stomatal dynamics, we conducted series of experiments combining pharmacological, surgical, genetic (CRISPR-Cas9) and chemical (GC-MS analysis) approaches. We show that the salivary enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOX), secreted by the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea on leaves, causes stomatal closure in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) within 5 min, and in both tomato and soybean (Glycine max) for at least 48 h. GOX also inhibits the emission of several HIPVs during feeding by H. zea, including (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-jasmone and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, which are important airborne signals in plant defenses. Our findings highlight a potential adaptive strategy where an insect herbivore inhibits plant airborne defenses during feeding by exploiting the association between stomatal dynamics and HIPV emission.