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  1. Abstract

    A specialized ground‐based system has been developed for simultaneous observations of pulsating aurora (PsA) and related magnetospheric phenomena with the Arase satellite. The instrument suite is composed of (a) six 100 Hz sampling high‐speed all‐sky imagers (ASIs), (b) two 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs observing 427.8 and 844.6 nm auroral emissions, (c) a 20 Hz sampling fluxgate magnetometer. The 100 Hz ASIs were deployed in four stations in Scandinavia and two stations in Alaska, which have been used for capturing the main pulsations and quasi 3 Hz internal modulations of PsA at the same time. The 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs have been operative in Tromsø, Norway with the 20 Hz sampling magnetometer. Combination of these multiple instruments with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radar enables us to detect the low‐altitude ionization due to energetic electron precipitation during PsA and further to reveal the ionospheric electrodynamics behind PsA. Since the launch of the Arase satellite, the data from these instruments have been examined in comparison with the wave and particle data from the satellite in the magnetosphere. In the future, the system can be utilized not only for studies of PsA but also for other classes of aurora in close collaboration with the planned EISCAT_3D project.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The recently discovered kagome superconductorsAV3Sb5(A= K, Rb, Cs) exhibit unusual charge-density-wave (CDW) orders with time-reversal and rotational symmetry breaking. One of the most crucial unresolved issues is identifying the symmetry of the superconductivity that develops inside the CDW phase. Theory predicts a variety of unconventional superconducting symmetries with sign-changing and chiral order parameters. Experimentally, however, superconducting phase information inAV3Sb5is still lacking. Here we report the impurity effects in CsV3Sb5using electron irradiation as a phase-sensitive probe of superconductivity. Our magnetic penetration depth measurements reveal that with increasing impurities, an anisotropic fully-gapped state changes to an isotropic full-gap state without passing through a nodal state. Furthermore, transport measurements under pressure show that the double superconducting dome in the pressure-temperature phase diagram survives against sufficient impurities. These results support that CsV3Sb5is a non-chiral, anisotropics-wave superconductor with no sign change both at ambient and under pressure.

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  3. Abstract

    This paper reports the development and detailed properties of about 13 metric tons of gadolinium sulfate octahydrate, $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$, which has been dissolved into Super-Kamiokande (SK) in the summer of 2020. We evaluate the impact of radioactive impurities in $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$ on diffuse supernova neutrino background searches and solar neutrino observation and confirm the need to reduce radioactive and fluorescent impurities by about three orders of magnitude from commercially available high-purity $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$. In order to produce ultra-high-purity $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$, we have developed a method to remove impurities from gadolinium oxide, Gd2O3, consisting of acid dissolution, solvent extraction, and pH control processes, followed by a high-purity sulfation process. All of the produced ultra-high-purity $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$ is assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and high-purity germanium detectors to evaluate its quality. Because of the long measurement time of high-purity germanium detectors, we have employed several underground laboratories for making parallel measurements including the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc in Spain, Boulby in the UK, and Kamioka in Japan. In the first half of production, the measured batch purities were found to be consistent with the specifications. However, in the latter half, the $\rm Gd_2(\rm SO_4)_3\cdot \rm 8H_2O$ contained one order of magnitude more 228Ra than the budgeted mean contamination. This was correlated with the corresponding characteristics of the raw material Gd2O3, in which an intrinsically large contamination was present. Based on their modest impact on SK physics, they were nevertheless introduced into the detector. To reduce 228Ra for the next stage of gadolinium loading to SK, a new process has been successfully established.

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