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  1. Abstract

    Rare earth emitters enable critical quantum resources including spin qubits, single photon sources, and quantum memories. Yet, probing of single ions remains challenging due to low emission rate of their intra-4foptical transitions. One feasible approach is through Purcell-enhanced emission in optical cavities. The ability to modulate cavity-ion coupling in real-time will further elevate the capacity of such systems. Here, we demonstrate direct control of single ion emission by embedding erbium dopants in an electro-optically active photonic crystal cavity patterned from thin-film lithium niobate. Purcell factor over 170 enables single ion detection, which is verified by second-order autocorrelation measurement. Dynamic control of emission rate is realized by leveraging electro-optic tuning of resonance frequency. Using this feature, storage, and retrieval of single ion excitation is further demonstrated, without perturbing the emission characteristics. These results promise new opportunities for controllable single-photon sources and efficient spin-photon interfaces.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2023
  3. Microresonator-based soliton generation promises chip-scale integration of optical frequency combs for applications spanning from time keeping to frequency synthesis. Access to the soliton repetition rate is a prerequisite for those applications. While miniaturized cavities harness Kerr nonlinearity and enable terahertz soliton repetition rates, such high rates are not amenable to direct electronic detection. Here, we demonstrate hybrid Kerr and electro-optic microcombs using a lithium niobate thin film that exhibits both Kerr and Pockels nonlinearities. By interleaving the high-repetition-rate Kerr soliton comb with the low-repetition-rate electro-optic comb on the same waveguide, wide Kerr soliton mode spacing is divided within a single chip, allowing for direct electronic detection and feedback control of the soliton repetition rate. Our work establishes an integrated approach to electronically access terahertz solitons, paving the way for building chip-scale referenced comb sources.

  4. Photons at microwave and optical frequencies are principal carriers for quantum information. While microwave photons can be effectively controlled at the local circuit level, optical photons can propagate over long distances. High-fidelity conversion between microwave and optical photons will allow the distribution of quantum states across different quantum technology nodes and enhance the scalability of hybrid quantum systems toward a future “Quantum Internet.” Despite a frequency difference of five orders of magnitude, there has been significant progress recently toward the transfer between microwave and optical photons with steadily improved efficiency in a coherent and bidirectional manner. In this review, we summarize this progress, emphasizing integrated device approaches, and provide a perspective for device implementation that enables quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution across microwave and optical domains.

  5. This erratum corrects a typographic error that appears in Table 1 of our earlier paper [Optica8,539(2021)OPTIC82334-253610.1364/OPTICA.418984].

  6. Abstract

    Superconducting cavity electro-optics presents a promising route to coherently convert microwave and optical photons and distribute quantum entanglement between superconducting circuits over long-distance. Strong Pockels nonlinearity and high-performance optical cavity are the prerequisites for high conversion efficiency. Thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) offers these desired characteristics. Despite significant recent progresses, only unidirectional conversion with efficiencies on the order of 10−5has been realized. In this article, we demonstrate the bidirectional electro-optic conversion in TFLN-superconductor hybrid system, with conversion efficiency improved by more than three orders of magnitude. Our air-clad device architecture boosts the sustainable intracavity pump power at cryogenic temperatures by suppressing the prominent photorefractive effect that limits cryogenic performance of TFLN, and reaches an efficiency of 1.02% (internal efficiency of 15.2%). This work firmly establishes the TFLN-superconductor hybrid EO system as a highly competitive transduction platform for future quantum network applications.

  7. Materials with strong second-order (χ<#comment/>(2)) optical nonlinearity, especially lithium niobate, play a critical role in building optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). However, chip-scale integration of low-lossχ<#comment/>(2)materials remains challenging and limits the threshold power of on-chipχ<#comment/>(2)OPO. Here we report an on-chip lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator at the telecom wavelengths using a quasi-phase-matched, high-quality microring resonator, whose threshold power (∼<#comment/>30µ<#comment/>W) is 400 times lower than that in previousχ<#comment/>(2)integrated photonics platforms. An on-chip power conversion efficiency of 11% is obtained from pump to signal and idler fields at a pump power of 93 µW. The OPO wavelength tuning is achieved by varying the pump frequency and chip temperature. With the lowest power threshold among all on-chip OPOs demonstrated so far, as well as advantages including high conversion efficiency, flexibility in quasi-phase-matching, and device scalability, the thin-film lithium niobate OPO opens new opportunities for chip-based tunable classical and quantum light sources and provides a potential platform for realizing photonic neural networks.

  8. We report intracavity Bragg scattering induced by the photorefractive (PR) effect in high-Qlithium niobate ring resonators at cryogenic temperatures. We show that when a cavity mode is strongly excited, the PR effect imprints a long-lived periodic space-charge field. This residual field in turn creates a refractive index modulation pattern that dramatically enhances the back scattering of an incoming probe light, and results in selective and reconfigurable mode splittings. This PR-induced Bragg scattering effect, despite being undesired for many applications, could be utilized to enable optically programmable photonic components.