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  1. The cache plays a key role in determining the performance of applications, no matter for sequential or concurrent programs on homogeneous and heterogeneous architecture. Fixing cache misses requires to understand the origin and the type of cache misses. However, this remains to be an unresolved issue even after decades of research. This paper proposes a unified profiling tool--CachePerf--that could correctly identify different types of cache misses, differentiate allocator-induced issues from those of applications, and exclude minor issues without much performance impact. The core idea behind CachePerf is a hybrid sampling scheme: it employs the PMU-based coarse-grained sampling to select very few susceptible instructions (with frequent cache misses) and then employs the breakpoint-based fine-grained sampling to collect the memory access pattern of these instructions. Based on our evaluation, CachePerf only imposes 14% performance overhead and 19% memory overhead (for applications with large footprints), while identifying the types of cache misses correctly. CachePerf detected 9 previous-unknown bugs. Fixing the reported bugs achieves from 3% to 3788% performance speedup. CachePerf will be an indispensable complementary to existing profilers due to its effectiveness and low overhead. 
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