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  1. Abstract

    Heterogeneity in brain activity can give rise to heterogeneity in behavior, which in turn comprises our distinctive characteristics as individuals. Studying the path from brain to behavior, however, often requires making assumptions about how similarity in behavior scales with similarity in brain activity. Here, we expand upon recent work (Finn et al., 2020) which proposes a theoretical framework for testing the validity of such assumptions. Using intersubject representational similarity analysis in two independent movie-watching functional MRI (fMRI) datasets, we probe how brain-behavior relationships vary as a function of behavioral domain and participant sample. We find evidence that, in some cases, the neural similarity of two individuals is not correlated with behavioral similarity. Rather, individuals with higher behavioral scores are more similar to other high scorers whereas individuals with lower behavioral scores are dissimilar from everyone else. Ultimately, our findings motivate a more extensive investigation of both the structure of brain-behavior relationships and the tacit assumption that people who behave similarly will demonstrate shared patterns of brain activity.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  2. Whole-genome duplication is a common macromutation with extensive impacts on gene expression, cellular function, and whole-organism phenotype. As a result, it has been proposed that polyploids have “general-purpose” genotypes that perform better than their diploid progenitors under stressful conditions. Here, we test this hypothesis in the context of stresses presented by anthropogenic pollutants. Specifically, we tested how multiple neotetraploid genetic lineages of the mostly asexually reproducing greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) perform across a favorable control environment and 5 urban pollutants (iron, salt, manganese, copper, and aluminum). By quantifying the population growth rate of asexually reproducing duckweed over multiple generations, we found that across most pollutants, but not all, polyploidy decreased the growth rate of actively growing propagules but increased that of dormant ones. Yet, when considering total propagule production, polyploidy increased tolerance to most pollutants, and polyploids maintained population-level fitness across pollutants better than diploids. Furthermore, broad-sense genetic correlations in growth rate among pollutants were all positive in neopolyploids but not so for diploids. Our results provide a rare test and support for the hypothesis that polyploids are more tolerant of stressful conditions and can maintain fitness better than diploids across heterogeneous stresses. These results may help predict that polyploids may be likely to persist in stressful environments, such as those caused by urbanization and other human activities. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 10, 2025
  3. Abstract

    Sleep is critical to a variety of cognitive functions and insufficient sleep can have negative consequences for mood and behavior across the lifespan. An important open question is how sleep duration is related to functional brain organization which may in turn impact cognition. To characterize the functional brain networks related to sleep across youth and young adulthood, we analyzed data from the publicly available Human Connectome Project (HCP) dataset, which includesn‐back task‐based and resting‐state fMRI data from adults aged 22–35 years (taskn = 896; restn = 898). We applied connectome‐based predictive modeling (CPM) to predict participants' mean sleep duration from their functional connectivity patterns. Models trained and tested using 10‐fold cross‐validation predicted self‐reported average sleep duration for the past month fromn‐back task and resting‐state connectivity patterns. We replicated this finding in data from the 2‐year follow‐up study session of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, which also includesn‐back task and resting‐state fMRI for adolescents aged 11–12 years (taskn = 786; restn = 1274) as well as Fitbit data reflecting average sleep duration per night over an average duration of 23.97 days. CPMs trained and tested with 10‐fold cross‐validation again predicted sleep duration fromn‐back task and resting‐state functional connectivity patterns. Furthermore, demonstrating that predictive models are robust across independent datasets, CPMs trained on rest data from the HCP sample successfully generalized to predict sleep duration in the ABCD Study sample and vice versa. Thus, common resting‐state functional brain connectivity patterns reflect sleep duration in youth and young adults.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2024
  5. Abstract

    We present JWST and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging for the lensing system SPT0418−47, which includes a strongly lensed, dusty, star-forming galaxy at redshiftz= 4.225 and an associated multiply imaged companion. The JWST NIRCam and MIRI imaging observations presented in this paper were acquired as part of the Early Release Science program Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star formation (TEMPLATES). This data set provides robust mutiwavelength detections of stellar light in both the main (SPT0418A) and companion (SPT0418B) galaxies, while the ALMA detection of [Cii] emission confirms that SPT0418B lies at the same redshift as SPT0418A. We infer that the projected physical separation of the two galaxies is 4.42 ± 0.05 kpc. We derive total magnifications ofμ= 29 ± 1 andμ= 4.1 ± 0.7 for SPT0418A and SPT0418B, respectively. We use bothprospectorandcigaleto derive stellar masses. We find that SPT0418A has a stellar mass ofM*=3.40.6+1.1×1010Mfromprospector orM*= 1.5 ± 0.3 × 1010Mfromcigale. The stellar mass ratio of SPT0418A and SPT0418B is roughly between 4 and 7 (4.21.6+1.9forprospectorand 7.5 ± 3.7 forcigale). We see evidence of extended structure associated with SPT0418A that is suggestive of a tidal feature. These features, along with the close projected proximity, imply that the system is interacting. Interestingly, the star formation rates and stellar masses of both galaxies are consistent with the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at this epoch, indicating that this ongoing interaction has not noticeably elevated the star formation levels.

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  6. Abstract

    The selection of high-redshift galaxies often involves spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to photometric data, an expectation for contamination levels, and measurement of sample completeness—all vetted through comparison to spectroscopic redshift measurements of a sub-sample. The first JWST data are now being taken over several extragalactic fields to different depths and across various areas, which will be ideal for the discovery and classification of galaxies out to distances previously uncharted. As spectroscopic redshift measurements for sources in this epoch will not be initially available to compare with the first photometric measurements ofz> 8 galaxies, robust photometric redshifts are of the utmost importance. Galaxies atz> 8 are expected to have bluer rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors than typically used model SED templates, which could lead to catastrophic photometric redshift failures. We use a combination of BPASS andCloudymodels to create a supporting set of templates that match the predicted rest-UV colors ofz> 8 simulated galaxies. We test these new templates by fitting simulated galaxies in a mock catalog, Yung et al., which mimic expected field depths and areas of the JWST Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey (m5σ∼ 28.6 over ∼100 arcmin2). We use EAZY to highlight the improvements in redshift recovery with the inclusion of our new template set and suggest criteria for selecting galaxies at 8 <z< 10 with the JWST, providing an important test case for observers venturing into this new era of astronomy.

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  7. Townsend, Jeffrey (Ed.)
    Abstract Xylose is the second most abundant monomeric sugar in plant biomass. Consequently, xylose catabolism is an ecologically important trait for saprotrophic organisms, as well as a fundamentally important trait for industries that hope to convert plant mass to renewable fuels and other bioproducts using microbial metabolism. Although common across fungi, xylose catabolism is rare within Saccharomycotina, the subphylum that contains most industrially relevant fermentative yeast species. The genomes of several yeasts unable to consume xylose have been previously reported to contain the full set of genes in the XYL pathway, suggesting the absence of a gene–trait correlation for xylose metabolism. Here, we measured growth on xylose and systematically identified XYL pathway orthologs across the genomes of 332 budding yeast species. Although the XYL pathway coevolved with xylose metabolism, we found that pathway presence only predicted xylose catabolism about half of the time, demonstrating that a complete XYL pathway is necessary, but not sufficient, for xylose catabolism. We also found that XYL1 copy number was positively correlated, after phylogenetic correction, with xylose utilization. We then quantified codon usage bias of XYL genes and found that XYL3 codon optimization was significantly higher, after phylogenetic correction, in species able to consume xylose. Finally, we showed that codon optimization of XYL2 was positively correlated, after phylogenetic correction, with growth rates in xylose medium. We conclude that gene content alone is a weak predictor of xylose metabolism and that using codon optimization enhances the prediction of xylose metabolism from yeast genome sequence data. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Stream acoustics has been proposed as a means of monitoring discharge and wave hazards from outside the stream channel. To better understand the dependence of sound on discharge and wave characteristics, this study analyzes discharge and infrasound data from an artificial wave feature which is adjusted to accommodate daily changes in recreational use and seasonal changes in irrigation demand. Monitorable sound is only observed when discharge exceeds ∼35 m3/s, and even above that threshold the sound‐discharge relationship is non‐linear and inconsistent. When sound is observed, it shows consistent dependence on wave type within a given year, but the direction of this dependence varies among the 3 years studied (2016, 2021, and 2022). These findings support previous research that establishes discharge and stream morphology as relevant controls on stream acoustics and highlights the complex, combined effects of these variables.

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  9. Abstract

    We present a seven-band (g,r,i,z,y, NB816, NB921) catalog derived from a Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) imaging survey of the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP). The survey, known as HEROES, consists of 44 deg2of contiguous imaging reaching median 5σdepths ofg: 26.5,r: 26.2,i: 25.7,z: 25.1,y: 23.9, NB816: 24.4, and NB921: 24.4 mag. We reduced these data with the HSC pipeline softwarehscPipe, and produced a resulting multiband catalog containing over 25 million objects. We provide the catalog in three formats: (1) a collection ofhscPipeformat forced photometry catalogs, (2) a single combined catalog containing every object in that data set with selected useful columns, and (3) a smaller variation of the combined catalog with only essential columns for basic analysis or low-memory machines. The catalog uses all the available HSC data on the NEP and may serve as the primary optical catalog for current and future NEP deep fields from instruments and observatories such as SCUBA-2, eROSITA, Spitzer, Euclid, and JWST.

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