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  1. Abstract Scale is a central concept in the geographical sciences and is an intrinsic property of many spatial systems. It also serves as an essential thread in the fabric of many other physical and social sciences, which has contributed to the use of different terminology for similar manifestations of what we refer to as ‘scale’, leading to a surprising amount of diversity around this fundamental concept and its various ‘multiscale’ extensions. To address this, we review common abstractions about spatial scale and how they are employed in quantitative research. We also explore areas where the conceptualizations of multiple spatial scalesmore »can be differentiated. This is achieved by first bridging terminology and concepts, and then conducting a scoping review of the topic. A typology for spatial scale is discussed that can be used to categorize its multifarious meanings and measures. This typology is then used to distinguish what we term ‘process scale,’ from other types of spatial scale and to highlight current trends in uncovering aspects of process scale. We end with suggestions on how to further build knowledge regarding spatial processes through the lens of spatial scale.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 9, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2023
  3. Chemically induced dimerization of FKBP and FRB using rapamycin and rapamycin analogs has been utilized in a variety of biological applications. Formation of the FKBP-rapamycin-FRB ternary complex is typically used to activate a biological process and this interaction has proven to be essentially irreversible. In many cases, it would be beneficial to also have temporal control over deactivating a biological process once it has been initiated. Thus, we developed the first reactive oxygen species-generating rapamycin analog toward this goal. The BODIPY-rapamycin analog BORap is capable of dimerizing FKBP and FRB to form a ternary complex, and upon irradiation with 530more »nm light, generates singlet oxygen to oxidize and inactivate proteins of interest fused to FKBP/FRB.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 20, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 2, 2022
  5. Native Americans domesticated maize ( Zea mays ssp. mays ) from lowland teosinte parviglumis ( Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) in the warm Mexican southwest and brought it to the highlands of Mexico and South America where it was exposed to lower temperatures that imposed strong selection on flowering time. Phospholipids are important metabolites in plant responses to low-temperature and phosphorus availability and have been suggested to influence flowering time. Here, we combined linkage mapping with genome scans to identify High PhosphatidylCholine 1 ( HPC1 ), a gene that encodes a phospholipase A1 enzyme, as a major driver of phospholipid variationmore »in highland maize. Common garden experiments demonstrated strong genotype-by-environment interactions associated with variation at HPC1, with the highland HPC1 allele leading to higher fitness in highlands, possibly by hastening flowering. The highland maize HPC1 variant resulted in impaired function of the encoded protein due to a polymorphism in a highly conserved sequence. A meta-analysis across HPC1 orthologs indicated a strong association between the identity of the amino acid at this position and optimal growth in prokaryotes. Mutagenesis of HPC1 via genome editing validated its role in regulating phospholipid metabolism. Finally, we showed that the highland HPC1 allele entered cultivated maize by introgression from the wild highland teosinte Zea mays ssp. mexicana and has been maintained in maize breeding lines from the Northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Thus, HPC1 introgressed from teosinte mexicana underlies a large metabolic QTL that modulates phosphatidylcholine levels and has an adaptive effect at least in part via induction of early flowering time.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 5, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022